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dc.contributor.authorAndreasen, Mie
dc.contributor.authorJensen, Karsten H.
dc.contributor.authorDesilets, Darin
dc.contributor.authorZreda, Marek
dc.contributor.authorBogena, Heye R.
dc.contributor.authorLooms, Majken C.
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-05T22:26:42Z
dc.date.available2017-06-05T22:26:42Z
dc.date.issued2017-04-03
dc.identifier.citationCosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site: the sensitivity to various environmental conditions with focus on biomass and canopy interception 2017, 21 (4):1875 Hydrology and Earth System Sciencesen
dc.identifier.issn1607-7938
dc.identifier.doi10.5194/hess-21-1875-2017
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/623933
dc.description.abstractCosmic-ray neutron intensity is inversely correlated to all hydrogen present in the upper decimeters of the subsurface and the first few hectometers of the atmosphere above the ground surface. This correlation forms the base of the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method. The method is, however, complicated by the fact that several hydrogen pools other than soil moisture affect the neutron intensity. In order to improve the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method and explore the potential for additional applications, knowledge about the environmental effect on cosmic-ray neutron intensity is essential (e.g., the effect of vegetation, litter layer and soil type). In this study the environmental effect is examined by performing a sensitivity analysis using neutron transport modeling. We use a neutron transport model with various representations of the forest and different parameters describing the subsurface to match measured height profiles and time series of thermal and epithermal neutron intensities at a field site in Denmark. Overall, modeled thermal and epithermal neutron intensities are in satisfactory agreement with measurements; however, the choice of forest canopy conceptualization is found to be significant. Modeling results show that the effect of canopy interception, soil chemistry and dry bulk density of litter and mineral soil on neutron intensity is small. On the other hand, the neutron intensity decreases significantly with added litter-layer thickness, especially for epithermal neutron energies. Forest biomass also has a significant influence on the neutron intensity height profiles at the examined field site, altering both the shape of the profiles and the ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratio. This ratio increases with increasing amounts of biomass, and was confirmed by measurements from three sites representing agricultural, heathland and forest land cover. A much smaller effect of canopy interception on the ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratio was modeled. Overall, the results suggest a potential to use ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratios to discriminate the effect of different hydrogen contributions on the neutron signal.
dc.description.sponsorshipVillum Foundation; European Union's FP7 programme [213007]en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherCOPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBHen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/21/1875/2017/en
dc.rights© Author(s) 2017. CC Attribution 3.0 License.en
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.titleCosmic-ray neutron transport at a forest field site: the sensitivity to various environmental conditions with focus on biomass and canopy interceptionen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Water Resourcesen
dc.identifier.journalHydrology and Earth System Sciencesen
dc.description.noteOpen Access Journal.en
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
refterms.dateFOA2018-05-29T08:03:07Z
html.description.abstractCosmic-ray neutron intensity is inversely correlated to all hydrogen present in the upper decimeters of the subsurface and the first few hectometers of the atmosphere above the ground surface. This correlation forms the base of the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method. The method is, however, complicated by the fact that several hydrogen pools other than soil moisture affect the neutron intensity. In order to improve the cosmic-ray neutron soil moisture estimation method and explore the potential for additional applications, knowledge about the environmental effect on cosmic-ray neutron intensity is essential (e.g., the effect of vegetation, litter layer and soil type). In this study the environmental effect is examined by performing a sensitivity analysis using neutron transport modeling. We use a neutron transport model with various representations of the forest and different parameters describing the subsurface to match measured height profiles and time series of thermal and epithermal neutron intensities at a field site in Denmark. Overall, modeled thermal and epithermal neutron intensities are in satisfactory agreement with measurements; however, the choice of forest canopy conceptualization is found to be significant. Modeling results show that the effect of canopy interception, soil chemistry and dry bulk density of litter and mineral soil on neutron intensity is small. On the other hand, the neutron intensity decreases significantly with added litter-layer thickness, especially for epithermal neutron energies. Forest biomass also has a significant influence on the neutron intensity height profiles at the examined field site, altering both the shape of the profiles and the ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratio. This ratio increases with increasing amounts of biomass, and was confirmed by measurements from three sites representing agricultural, heathland and forest land cover. A much smaller effect of canopy interception on the ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratio was modeled. Overall, the results suggest a potential to use ground-level thermal-to-epithermal neutron ratios to discriminate the effect of different hydrogen contributions on the neutron signal.


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