An Evaluation of Student Pharmacist Admission Medication Histories at a Level 1 Trauma, Academic Medical Center: A Descriptive Study
AffiliationCollege of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona
KeywordsAdvanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE)
Electronic Medical Records
MeSH SubjectsElectronic Health Records
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RightsCopyright © is held by the author.
Collection InformationThis item is part of the Pharmacy Student Research Projects collection, made available by the College of Pharmacy and the University Libraries at the University of Arizona. For more information about items in this collection, please contact Jennifer Martin, Librarian and Clinical Instructor, Pharmacy Practice and Science, email@example.com.
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
AbstractObjectives: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effect of using advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students in the collection of admission medication history at an academic teaching hospital prior to pharmacist review. Methods: The study is a retrospective, descriptive study. Using electronic medical records, the study looked at patients admitted to specific floors during a two-month period. The primary outcome was number of discrepancies found by the APPE students. The secondary outcome was the type of discrepancy found (omission, duplication, wrong dose, wrong frequency, wrong dosage form, and medications the subject no longer takes). Results: Over eight weeks, the APPE students identified 2,666 discrepancies, which equates to approximately 4.71 ± 4.76 discrepancies per patient. The majority of these discrepancies were identified as omissions of therapy (39.1%), followed by medications the patients were no longer taking (29.8%), and wrong dosing frequencies (18.1%). Conclusions: APPE students assisted the medication reconciliation process by identifying numerous medication discrepancies which may have prevented patient harm. APPE students are an underutilized resource and prove to be an asset to the healthcare team.
DescriptionClass of 2017 Abstract
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Description of a Pharmacy Technician and Student Intern-Driven Medication Reconciliation Process and Evaluation of Medical Provider Acceptance of Recommendations to Reorder Critical MedicationsSalek, Ferena; Hall, Edina; Glover, Jon; Hall, Scott Thomas; Salek, Ferena; Hall, Edina; Glover, Jon; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2011)OBJECTIVES: To describe a pharmacy technician and student intern-driven medication reconciliation process and to evaluate medical provider acceptance of recommendations to reorder critical medications. METHODS: Patients admitted to Northwest Medical Center had medication histories taken on admission. A specially trained pharmacy technician or student intern reviewed these histories, with emphasis placed on critical medications as defined by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee. Recommendations to re-order these critical medications were made to medical providers. All patients, excluding those under 18 years of age or current enrollment in the prison system, admitted during the months of May-June 2010 were reviewed for acceptance of critical medication recommendations through information recorded in the pharmacy electronic medical record system. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-eight (178) recommendations were made on 132 patients requiring recommendations. All medical providers accepted 102 (57%, p-value=0.008) of the recommendations made. Hospitalists were more likely than physician specialists or surgeons to accept recommendations made (62.5%, p-value<0.001). Recommendations made regarding thyroid products were accepted the greatest majority of the time (82.1%, p-value<0.001); antidepressants (54.8%, p-value=0.321), anticonvulsants (63.2%, p-value=0.194), and medications classified as other (55.6%, p-value=0.480) were also accepted a majority of the time. Vitamin K antagonists did not have recommendations accepted a majority of the time (31.8%, p-value=0.034). CONCLUSION: Medical providers accepted a majority of recommendations to reorder critical medications made by pharmacy technicians or student interns.
Medication Reconciliation at an Academic Medical Center: Perceptions from Medical ProfessionalsWarholak, Terri; Candlish, Karol; Young, Genevieve; Warholak, Terri; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2012)Specific Aims: The goal of this project was to assess perceptions of medication reconciliation from medical professionals who perform them. Specific areas of interest included the perceived: amount of time spent on medication reconciliation; process complexity; and effectiveness of the current process. Opinions concerning the use of alternative processes were also solicited. Methods: This prospective qualitative study involved four focus group sessions at one tertiary referral teaching hospital in Tucson, Arizona. Nurses involved in admissions medication reconciliation in the emergency department were invited to participate, and their perceptions were categorized and summarized. Main Results: Participants reported a range of times to complete the medication reconciliation from zero to greater than 20 minutes. According to the participants, the time spent on each patient depended on patients’ medication knowledge and the complexity of their regimens. Participants wanted the medication list entry screen to be easier to use, and they also suggested patients’ medication lists from previous visits and from outpatient clinics associated with the medical center be easily accessible. Participants felt that emergency triage may not be the most ideal time in which to perform medication reconciliation, and they expressed concerns about accuracy of these medication lists. While some were interested in the possibility of using a patient medication database and expected that it would improve accuracy and save time, others were less open to a perceived additional step. Concusions: Participants provided suggestions for changes in the current medication reconciliation process that they feel could improve patient satisfaction and increase efficiency.
Collaboration Among Families, Educators, and Medical Professionals to Create a Rural Medical Home for Children with Special Health Care Needs and DisabilitiesMaker, Carol June; Pirtle, Jody Marie; Antia, Shirin; MacFarland, Stephanie; Taylor, Angela; Maker, Carol June (The University of Arizona., 2012)Families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and disabilities who lived in rural communities faced a variety of economic, social, and environmental challenges. Bronfenbrenner (1979, 2005) in his Bioecological Theory of Human Development offered an insightful lens for understanding the nested environments in which these families interact. This model was used as the overarching framework for this dissertation. The three manuscripts contained in this dissertation have included analyses of the involvement and participation of families of CSHCN and disabilities in the creation of a medical home located in a rural southwestern border community. These studies were critical for the medical home professionals - family involvement was at the core of the medical home philosophy. The overarching purpose of this dissertation was to set the foundation for successful family participation and feedback in the medical home. Within the first manuscript, I used the Medical Home Family Index to discover families’ (a) perceptions of interactions with medical professionals and (b) ratings of the quality of care within the medical home. Families of CSHCN (N = 92) completed the Medical Home Family Index and descriptive statistics as well as Chi-Square analyses were completed. Significant associations between families’ home languages and the amount of time the CSHCN had been receiving services at the medical home and the families’ responses were found. No associations between the children’s ages and the families’ responses were found. Recommendations for medical home professionals to complete the partner index, the Medical Home Index, were included. The purpose of the second manuscript was to examine the support needs of families of CSHCN and disabilities. Relationships between the severity of the children’s special health care needs and disabilities and the potential services they required were explored. For this study, a small sample (N = 25) of families of CSHCN completed the Family Needs section of the Center for Medical Home Improvement Family Survey, an in-depth, five-part survey designed to have families report on the services and supports that their CSHCN actually received. Families of CSHCN identified the need for therapies to be provided within the community. Findings from this study supported the creation of a pilot program in which parents were active participants in an intensive summer program designed to address the language and communication needs of their children. The purposes of the third manuscript were to (a) conduct research in two settings - a rural medical home and the families’ natural environments, (b) identify families’ perceptions of a targeted summer language intervention program, and (c) determine what changes in young children’s communication skills could be measured when parents were active members in a targeted summer language intervention program. For the third study, fourteen children with language delays and their families participated. Children were assessed using the Battelle Developmental Inventory-2nd Edition or the Preschool Language Scale-4th Edition. Intervention was conducted within a pediatric medical home and families continued the intervention at home. For both test results, the treatment had a significant effect. All families indicated a strong desire to continue the program and families who were most concerned with their children’s language were most satisfied with the program. This pilot program model was an example of ways that interventions could be extended successfully beyond traditional settings.