AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
planets and satellites: formation
stars: pre-main sequence
stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationWhat is the Mass of a Gap-opening Planet? 2017, 835 (2):146 The Astrophysical Journal
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Rights© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractHigh-contrast imaging instruments such as GPI and SPHERE are discovering gap structures in protoplanetary disks at an ever faster pace. Some of these gaps may be opened by planets forming in the disks. In order to constrain planet formation models using disk observations, it is crucial to find a robust way to quantitatively back out the properties of the gap-opening planets, in particular their masses, from the observed gap properties, such as their depths and widths. Combining 2D and 3D hydrodynamics simulations with 3D radiative transfer simulations, we investigate the morphology of planet-opened gaps in near-infrared scattered-light images. Quantitatively, we obtain correlations that directly link intrinsic gap depths and widths in the gas surface density to observed depths and widths in images of disks at modest inclinations under finite angular resolution. Subsequently, the properties of the surface density gaps enable us to derive the disk scale height at the location of the gap h, and to constrain the quantity M-p(2)/alpha, where Mp is the mass of the gap-opening planet and a characterizes the viscosity in the gap. As examples, we examine the gaps recently imaged by VLT/SPHERE, Gemini/GPI, and Subaru/HiCIAO in HD 97048, TW Hya, HD 169142, LkCa. 15, and RX J1615.3-3255. Scale heights of the disks and possible masses of the gap-opening planets are derived assuming each gap is opened by a single planet. Assuming a = 10(-3), the derived planet masses in all cases are roughly between 0.1 and 1M(J).
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute [HST-HF-51320.01-A, NAS 5-26555]; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Center for Integrative Planetary Science at the University of California, Berkeley; Sagan Fellowship Program - NASA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)