Ejection of the Massive Hydrogen-rich Envelope Timed with the Collapse of the Stripped SN 2014C
de Mink, S. E.
Zauderer, B. A.
Parrent, J. T.
Soderberg, A. M.
Gehrels, N. C.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
Keywordssupernovae: individual (SN 2014C)
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationEjection of the Massive Hydrogen-rich Envelope Timed with the Collapse of the Stripped SN 2014C 2017, 835 (2):140 The Astrophysical Journal
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Rights© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
AbstractWe present multi-wavelength observations of SN 2014C during the first 500 days. These observations represent the first solid detection of a young extragalactic stripped-envelope SN out to high-energy X-rays similar to 40 keV. SN 2014C shows ordinary explosion parameters (E-k similar to 1.8 x 10(51) erg and M-ej similar to 1.7M circle dot). However, over an similar to 1 year timescale, SN 2014C evolved from an ordinary hydrogen-poor supernova into a strongly interacting, hydrogen-rich supernova, violating the traditional classification scheme of type-I versus type-II SNe. Signatures of the SN shock interaction with a dense medium are observed across the spectrum, from radio to hard X-rays, and revealed the presence of a massive shell of similar to 1Me of hydrogen-rich material at similar to 6. x. 10(16) cm. The shell was ejected by the progenitor star in the decades to centuries before collapse. This result challenges current theories of massive star evolution, as it requires a physical mechanism responsible for the ejection of the deepest hydrogen layer of H-poor SN progenitors synchronized with the onset of stellar collapse. Theoretical investigations point at binary interactions and/or instabilities during the last nuclear burning stages as potential triggers of the highly time-dependent mass loss. We constrain these scenarios utilizing the sample of 183 SNe Ib/c with public radio observations. Our analysis identifies SN 2014C-like signatures in similar to 10% of SNe. This fraction is reasonably consistent with the expectation from the theory of recent envelope ejection due to binary evolution if the ejected material can survive in the close environment for 10(3)-10(4) years. Alternatively, nuclear burning instabilities extending to core C-burning might play a critical role.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsJames Arthur Fellowship at NYU; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Reintegration Fellowship (H MSCA-IF) ; Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA); Chandra X-ray Observatory [GO 15500831, DDT 15508491]; NASA [NNX15AV38G]; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Science Foundation [PHYS-1066293]