Effects of Latent Heating on Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Planets
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Dept Planetary Sci
Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab
planets and satellites: atmospheres planets
planets and satellites: gaseous planets
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationEffects of Latent Heating on Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Planets 2017, 835 (2):186 The Astrophysical Journal
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Rights© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractThe growing number of observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) has provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these objects. Directly imaged planets share similar observations and can be viewed as low-gravity versions of BDs. Vigorous condensate cycles of chemical species in their atmospheres are inferred by observations and theoretical studies, and latent heating associated with condensation is expected to be important in shaping atmospheric circulation and influencing cloud patchiness. We present a qualitative description of the mechanisms by which condensational latent heating influences circulation, and then illustrate them using an idealized general circulation model that includes a condensation cycle of silicates with latent heating and molecular weight effect due to the rainout of the condensate. Simulations with conditions appropriate for typical T dwarfs exhibit the development of localized storms and east-west jets. The storms are spatially inhomogeneous, evolving on a timescale of hours to days and extending vertically from the condensation level to the tropopause. The fractional area of the BD covered by active storms is small. Based on a simple analytic model, we quantitatively explain the area fraction of moist plumes and show its dependence on the radiative timescale and convective available potential energy (CAPE). We predict that if latent heating dominates cloud formation processes, the fractional coverage area of clouds decreases as the spectral type goes through the L/T transition from high to lower effective temperature. This is a natural consequence of the variation of the radiative timescale and CAPE with the spectral type.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNASA Headquarters; NSF [AST 1313444]
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Precise radial velocities of giant starsOrtiz, Mauricio; Reffert, Sabine; Trifonov, Trifon; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Mitchell, David S.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Buenzli, Esther; Zimmerman, Neil; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Skemer, Andy; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2016-10-28)Context. For over 12 yr, we have carried out a precise radial velocity (RV) survey of a sample of 373 G- and K-giant stars using the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory. There are, among others, a number of multiple planetary systems in our sample as well as several planetary candidates in stellar binaries. Aims. We aim at detecting and characterizing substellar and stellar companions to the giant star HD 59686 A (HR 2877, HIP 36616). Methods. We obtained high-precision RV measurements of the star HD 59686 A. By fitting a Keplerian model to the periodic changes in the RVs, we can assess the nature of companions in the system. To distinguish between RV variations that are due to non-radial pulsation or stellar spots, we used infrared RVs taken with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Additionally, to characterize the system in more detail, we obtained high-resolution images with LMIRCam at the Large Binocular Telescope. Results. We report the probable discovery of a giant planet with a mass of m(p) sin i = 6.92(-0.24)(+0.18) M-Jup orbiting at a(p) = 1.0860(-0.0007)(+0.0006) aufrom the giant star HD 59686 A. In addition to the planetary signal, we discovered an eccentric (e(B) = 0.729(-0.003)(+0.004)) binary companionwith a mass of m(B) sin i = 0.5296(-0.0008)(+0.0011) M-circle dot orbiting at a close separation from the giant primary with a semi-major axis of a(B) = 13.56(-0.14)(+0.18) au. Conclusions. The existence of the planet HD 59686 Ab in a tight eccentric binary system severely challenges standard giant planet formation theories and requires substantial improvements to such theories in tight binaries. Otherwise, alternative planet formation scenarios such as second-generation planets or dynamical interactions in an early phase of the system's lifetime need to be seriously considered to better understand the origin of this enigmatic planet.
DISCOVERY AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH-DENSITY SUB-NEPTUNE FROM THE K2 MISSIONEspinoza, Nestor; Brahm, Rafael; Jordan, Andres; Jenkins, James S.; Rojas, Felipe; Jofre, Paula; Madler, Thomas; Rabus, Markus; Chaname, Julio; Pantoja, Blake; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-10)We report the discovery of K2-56b, a high-density sub-Neptune exoplanet, made using photometry from Campaign 4 of the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission, ground-based radial velocity (RV) follow-up from HARPS and high-resolution lucky and adaptive optics imaging obtained using AstraLux and MagAO, respectively. The host star is a bright (V - 11.04, K-s - 9.37), slightly metal-poor ([Fe/H] - -0.15 +/- 0.05 dex) solar analogue located at 152.1(-7.4)(+9.7) pc from Earth, for which we find a radius of R-* = 0.928(-04040)(+0.055) and a mass of M-* = 0.961(-0.029)(+0.032) M-circle dot. A joint analysis of the K2 photometry and HARPS RVs reveal that the planet is in a approximate to 42 day orbit around its host star, has a radius of 2.23(011)(+0.14)R(circle plus), and a mass of 16.3(6.1)(+6.0) M-circle plus. Although the data at hand put the planet in the region of the massradius diagram where we could expect planets with a pure rock (i.e., magnesium silicate) composition using two-layer models (i.e., between rock/iron and rock/ice compositions), we discuss more realistic three-layer composition models which can explain the high density of the discovered exoplanet. The fact that the planet lies in the boundary between "possibly rocky" and "non-rocky" exoplanets makes it an interesting planet for future RV follow-up.
TIDAL RESPONSE OF PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODELWahl, S. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, Burkhard; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-10-21)In anticipation of improved observational data for Jupiter's gravitational field, from the Juno spacecraft, we predict the static tidal response for a variety of Jupiter interior models based on ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures. We calculate hydrostatic-equilibrium gravity terms, using the non-perturbative concentric Maclaurin Spheroid method that eliminates lengthy expansions used in the theory of figures. Our method captures terms arising from the coupled tidal and rotational perturbations, which we find to be important for a rapidly rotating planet like Jupiter. Our predicted static tidal Love number, k(2) = 0.5900, is similar to 10% larger than previous estimates. The value is, as expected, highly correlated with the zonal harmonic coefficient J(2), and is thus nearly constant when plausible changes are made to the interior structure while holding J(2) fixed at the observed value. We note that the predicted static k(2) might change, due to Jupiter's dynamical response to the Galilean moons, and find reasons to argue that the change may be detectable-although we do not present here a theory of dynamical tides for highly oblate Jovian planets. An accurate model of Jupiter's tidal response will be essential for interpreting Juno observations and identifying tidal signals from effects of other interior dynamics of Jupiter's gravitational field.