PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractEpigenetic regulation describes the manner in which gene expression is modified without changes to the DNA sequence. It is a complex process that involves the interaction of many biological molecules. The three most well-characterized mechanisms of epigenetic regulation are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA activity. It is well established that environmental factors can regulate the activity of these mechanisms. This review specifically focuses on the manner by which physical activity and nutrition can alter gene expression through epigenetic regulation, proposing an explanation of why certain eating and exercise behaviors produce particular outcomes. The results of my research indicate that engaging in physical activity positively regulates the activity of signaling pathways that lead to tissue remodeling and an increase in aerobic capacity. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of early-life nutrition and how poor periconceptional nutrition negatively affects offspring. Type II diabetes, is a metabolic condition largely characterized by insulin resistance and the pathways that regulate insulin-mediated glucose uptake are susceptible to epigenetic regulation.
Degree ProgramHonors College