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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
AbstractThe Team has been contracted by Mordor Oil to plan, design, and evaluate the feasibility of an early production facility (EPF) in Batman, Turkey that will produce 10,000 barrels per day (BPD) of crude oil that meets industry standards. The 10,000 BPD is split evenly between two types of crude: heavy and light. The heavy crude has the following inlet conditions: it will produce 1,000 BPD of water, has an American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity of 16 degrees, a gas/oil ratio (GOR) of 150, a delivery temperature range of 20-30 degrees Celsius, a delivery pressure range of 250 to 450 psia, 13% H2S in the gas phase, and a high salt content. The light crude has the following inlet conditions: it will produce 1,000 BPD of water, has an API gravity of 37 degrees, a GOR of 600, a delivery temperature range of 18 to 40 degrees Celsius, a delivery pressure range of 250 to 700 psia, 23% H2S in the gas phase, and a high salt content. Despite the differing inlet conditions, the product sales specifications are the same: a basic sediment and water (BS&W) content of less than 0.5 weight percent, a relative vapor pressure (RVP) of less than 10 psia, an H2S concentration of less than 20 ppm, a salt concentration of less than 10 pounds per barrel (PTB), and an overall sulfur concentration of less than 2 weight percent. In order to achieve these specifications, the Team designed two processes that run in parallel, meaning that the light and heavy crudes remain separate. Within the process, the crude encounters a phase separator to extract the free flowing water and natural gas that enters from the well, two electrostatic coalescers (ECs) in series to remove emulsified water and salts, and a stripping tower to absorb hydrogen sulfide into nitrogen gas. Between these major pieces of equipment, additional features like heaters, mixers, valves, and flares are used to reduce the viscosity of the oil, mix in freshwater, control pressure drops, and burn excess gases, respectively. Wastewater is piped off site to a wastewater treatment facility and then returns to the facility as process water. The nitrogen used to strip hydrogen sulfide is produced via a nitrogen generation process. Because this is a grassroots plant, the Team also included designs for housing, office space and a cafeteria. Each piece of equipment is designed and optimized.