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dc.contributor.authorKomacek, Thaddeus D.
dc.contributor.authorYoudin, Andrew N.
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-09T18:33:36Z
dc.date.available2017-08-09T18:33:36Z
dc.date.issued2017-07-26
dc.identifier.citationStructure and Evolution of Internally Heated Hot Jupiters 2017, 844 (2):94 The Astrophysical Journalen
dc.identifier.issn1538-4357
dc.identifier.doi10.3847/1538-4357/aa7b75
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/625158
dc.description.abstractHot Jupiters receive strong stellar irradiation, producing equilibrium temperatures of 1000-2500 K. Incoming irradiation directly heats just their thin outer layer, down to pressures of similar to 0.1 bars. In standard irradiated evolution models of hot Jupiters, predicted transit radii are too small. Previous studies have shown that deeper heating-at a small fraction of the heating rate from irradiation-can explain observed radii. Here we present a suite of evolution models for HD 209458b, where we systematically vary both the depth and intensity of internal heating, without specifying the uncertain heating mechanism(s). Our models start with a hot, high-entropy planet whose radius decreases as the convective interior cools. The applied heating suppresses this cooling. We find that very shallow heating-at pressures of 1-10 bars-does not significantly suppress cooling, unless the total heating rate is greater than or similar to 10% of the incident stellar power. Deeper heating, at 100 bars, requires heating at only 1% of the stellar irradiation to explain the observed transit radius of 1.4R(Jup) after 5 Gyr of cooling. In general, more intense and deeper heating results in larger hot-Jupiter radii. Surprisingly, we find that heat deposited at 10(4) bars-which is exterior to approximate to 99% of the planet's mass-suppresses planetary cooling as effectively as heating at the center. In summary, we find that relatively shallow heating is required to explain the radii of most hot Jupiters, provided that this heat is applied early and persists throughout their evolution.
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program [PLANET14F-0038]; NASA ATP program [NNX16AB26G]en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherIOP PUBLISHING LTDen
dc.relation.urlhttp://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/844/i=2/a=94?key=crossref.ef65994c57f7f9fde4a89b39652b8605en
dc.rights© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.en
dc.subjectmethods: numericalen
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: atmospheresen
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: gaseous planetsen
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: individual (HD 209458b)en
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: interiorsen
dc.titleStructure and Evolution of Internally Heated Hot Jupitersen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Planetary Scien
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Laben
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Astronen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Steward Observen
dc.identifier.journalThe Astrophysical Journalen
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-23T00:41:54Z
html.description.abstractHot Jupiters receive strong stellar irradiation, producing equilibrium temperatures of 1000-2500 K. Incoming irradiation directly heats just their thin outer layer, down to pressures of similar to 0.1 bars. In standard irradiated evolution models of hot Jupiters, predicted transit radii are too small. Previous studies have shown that deeper heating-at a small fraction of the heating rate from irradiation-can explain observed radii. Here we present a suite of evolution models for HD 209458b, where we systematically vary both the depth and intensity of internal heating, without specifying the uncertain heating mechanism(s). Our models start with a hot, high-entropy planet whose radius decreases as the convective interior cools. The applied heating suppresses this cooling. We find that very shallow heating-at pressures of 1-10 bars-does not significantly suppress cooling, unless the total heating rate is greater than or similar to 10% of the incident stellar power. Deeper heating, at 100 bars, requires heating at only 1% of the stellar irradiation to explain the observed transit radius of 1.4R(Jup) after 5 Gyr of cooling. In general, more intense and deeper heating results in larger hot-Jupiter radii. Surprisingly, we find that heat deposited at 10(4) bars-which is exterior to approximate to 99% of the planet's mass-suppresses planetary cooling as effectively as heating at the center. In summary, we find that relatively shallow heating is required to explain the radii of most hot Jupiters, provided that this heat is applied early and persists throughout their evolution.


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