AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
planets and satellites: detection
planets and satellites: formation
stars: variables: T Tauri, Herlarge Ae/Be
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationMultiple Disk Gaps and Rings Generated by a Single Super-Earth 2017, 843 (2):127 The Astrophysical Journal
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Rights© 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at email@example.com.
AbstractWe investigate the observational signatures of super-Earths (i.e., planets with. Earth-to-Neptune. mass), which are the most common type of exoplanet discovered to date, in their natal disks of gas and dust. Combining two-fluid global hydrodynamics simulations with a radiative transfer code, we calculate the distributions of gas and of submillimeter-sized dust in a disk perturbed by a super-Earth, synthesizing images in near-infrared scattered light and the millimeter-wave thermal continuum for direct comparison with observations. In low-viscosity gas (alpha (sic) 10(-4)), a super-Earth opens two annular gaps to either side of its orbit by the action of Lindblad torques. This double gap and its associated gas pressure gradients cause dust particles to be dragged by gas into three rings: one ring sandwiched between the two gaps, and two rings located at the gap edges farthest from the planet. Depending on the. system parameters, additional rings may manifest for a single planet. A double gap located at tens of au. from a host star in Taurus can be detected in the dust continuum by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at an angular resolution of similar to 0".03 after two hours of integration. Ring and gap features persist in a variety of background disk profiles, last for thousands of orbits, and change their relative positions and dimensions depending on the speed and direction of planet migration. Candidate double gaps have been observed by ALMA in systems such as. HL Tau (D5 and D6) and TW Hya (at 37 and 43 au); we submit that each double gap is carved by one super-Earth in nearly inviscid gas.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsUC Berkeley Vice Chancellor for Research; Berkeley Center for Integrative Planetary Science; LANL's LDRD program; CSES project; NSF; NASA