Using electroretinograms and multi-model inference to identify spectral classes of photoreceptors and relative opsin expression levels
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Dept Neurosci
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CitationUsing electroretinograms and multi-model inference to identify spectral classes of photoreceptors and relative opsin expression levels 2017, 5:e3595 PeerJ
RightsCopyright © 2017 Lessios. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0.
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AbstractUnderstanding how individual photoreceptor cells factor in the spectral sensitivity of a visual system is essential to explain how they contribute to the visual ecology of the animal in question. Existing methods that model the absorption of visual pigments use templates which correspond closely to data from thin cross-sections of photoreceptor cells. However, few modeling approaches use a single framework to incorporate physical parameters of real photoreceptors, which can be fused, and can form vertical tiers. Akaike’s information criterion (AIC c ) was used here to select absorptance models of multiple classes of photoreceptor cells that maximize information, given visual system spectral sensitivity data obtained using extracellular electroretinograms and structural parameters obtained by histological methods. This framework was first used to select among alternative hypotheses of photoreceptor number. It identified spectral classes from a range of dark-adapted visual systems which have between one and four spectral photoreceptor classes. These were the velvet worm, Principapillatus hitoyensis , the branchiopod water flea, Daphnia magna , normal humans, and humans with enhanced S-cone syndrome, a condition in which S-cone frequency is increased due to mutations in a transcription factor that controls photoreceptor expression. Data from the Asian swallowtail, Papilio xuthus , which has at least five main spectral photoreceptor classes in its compound eyes, were included to illustrate potential effects of model over-simplification on multi-model inference. The multi-model framework was then used with parameters of spectral photoreceptor classes and the structural photoreceptor array kept constant. The goal was to map relative opsin expression to visual pigment concentration. It identified relative opsin expression differences for two populations of the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei . The modeling approach presented here will be useful in selecting the most likely alternative hypotheses of opsin-based spectral photoreceptor classes, using relative opsin expression and extracellular electroretinography.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNational Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship [DGE-0802261]; NIH IRACDA PERT fellowship through the Center for Insect Science at the University of Arizona [K12 GM000708]
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