AuthorValencia, Celina I.
AdvisorRosales, Cecilia B.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractBackground: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is an urgent public health issue in Mexico. Mexico has witnessed a 122% increase in reported prevalence of HIV since 2001 (Holtz et al., 2014). Country estimates suggest there are between 140,000-230,000 individuals living with HIV in Mexico (CENSIDA, 2014). While approximately 50% of individuals living with HIV in Mexico are unaware that they are living with the virus (CENSIDA, 2014). Despite a federal universal HIV program implemented in 2011, HIV in Mexico has not reached a chronic infectious disease status as seen in other regions of the globe (Deeks, 2013). The mortality rate among individuals with HIV/AIDS in Mexico is 4.2 per 100,000 (CENSIDA, 2014). There is a paucity of findings regarding social and epidemiological data focused on populations outside traditional at risk populations of HIV in Mexico (Martin-Onraët et al., 2016). Analyzing aggregate country level data for Mexico provides necessary insights to better understanding previously unconsidered social factors that are informing sexual and reproductive health trends influencing HIV health patterns. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed on Mexico's Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012 (ENSANUT). Mexico’s ENSANUT is a probabilistic aggregate national dataset with a multistage stratified cluster sampling design (Janssen et al., 2013). ENSANUT is Mexico’s equivalent to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. Data is collected via self-report interviews conducted at the participant's home. A structured questionnaire was administered to individuals 20 years of age and older (≥ 20) where sexual and reproductive data was collected from participants. The ENSANUT adult study sub-sample (n=46,227) is comprised of 42.75% men and 57.25% women. A general linear model (GLM), principal component analysis (PCA), chi-squares (χ²), and logistic regressions were applied to the study adult subsample to disentangle social factors associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the population. Quantitative analyses were conducted on SAS 9.4. Findings: Men were more likely to have a STI diagnosis (OR=3.60; 95% CI 3.00, 4.32, p=<0.001). Previous HIV testing was found to be protective for STI diagnosis across both genders (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.72, 0.94, p=<0.001). Co-infections of HIV/gonorrhea and HIV/syphilis (n=20) were the highest in the study population. The latent variable model indicates mental health and access to health care resources are critical for positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes in Mexico. Mental health was found to be non-protective for STI risk among the study population (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.41, 1.81, p=<0.0001). Policy recommendations: 1. Increased access and utilization of HIV resources and mental health services would benefit the study population. Further qualitative research is needed to better understand the barriers to health care access and utilization in these two domains; 2. Increase in preventative programs and health initiatives that encourage established strategies for positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes. These strategies include: universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, wide availability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and routine HIV/STI screenings; 3. Alternative data collection strategies for ENSANUT which are culturally appropriate for sexual and reproductive health constructs.
Degree ProgramGraduate College