The Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Peptidic Ligands for the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain
AuthorRemesic, Michael Vincent
AdvisorHruby, Victor J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractChronic neuropathic pain is a disease that impacts the livelihood of millions of people in the United States with no effective pain treatments and limited information pertaining to the underlying mechanisms. Opioid therapy is considered the gold standard for pain therapeutics, but chronic use of these medications brings about serious side effects such as tolerance, addiction, and respiratory depression which limit their overall therapeutic potential. Herein, two approaches are discussed to circumvent these issues: i) a multifunctional approach using N-phenyl-N-piperidin-4-yl-propionamide (Ppp) coupled to various endogenous opioid ligand scaffolds, and ii) non-opioid dynorphin A (DYN A) ligands at the Bradykinin-2 receptor (B2R). The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) upon agonist stimulation provides analgesia and concomitant activation of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) leads to an increased antinociceptive effect. Chronic activation of the MOR has been correlated with an upregulation of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) and KOR associated side effects such as anxiety and depression. The discovery of a new class of opioid receptor (OR) ligands that have the biological profile of MOR/DOR agonists and KOR antagonists would be beneficial considering they would have an increased analgesic effect, leading to a lower dosage being administered and thus lower overall side effects, and block symptoms elicited from KOR stimulation. Discussed are various structure activity relationships (SARs) of numerous scaffolds that present novel biological profiles. Ultimately, we discovered a compound that, to our knowledge, is the 1st MOR/DOR agonist and KOR antagonist. DYN A is the endogenous ligand for the KOR and its [des-Tyr1]-DYN A fragment interacts with the B2R, but not the KOR, promoting hyperalgesia. Peptidomimetic non-opioid DYN A analogues were synthesized and evaluated at the B2R. A minimum pharmacophore was identified and antagonists with both improved biological stability and affinity were discovered.
Degree ProgramGraduate College