Tune-out Wavelength Measurement and Gyroscope Using Dispersion Compensation in an Atom Interferometer
AdvisorCronin, Alexander D.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThis Dissertation describes how I used a three nanograting Mach-Zehnder atom beam interferometer to precisely measure a wavelength of light, known as a tune-out wavelength, that causes zero energy shift for an atom. I also describe how such measurements can be remarkably sensitive to rotation rates. It is well known that atom interferometry can be used to measure accelerations and rotations, but it was a surprise to find out that tune-out wavelength measurements can under certain conditions be used to report the absolute rotation rate of the laboratory with respect to an inertial frame of reference. I also describe how we created conditions which improve the accuracy of tune out wavelength measurements. These measurements are important because they serve as a benchmark test for atomic structure calculations of line strengths, oscillator strengths, and dipole matrix elements. I present a new measurement of the longest tune-out wavelength in potassium, λzero = 768.9701(4) nm. To reach sub-picometer precision, an optical cavity surrounding the atom beam paths of the interferometer was used. Although this improved the precision of our experiment by increasing the light-induced phase shifts, the cavity also brought several systematic errors to our attentions. For example, I found that large ±200 pm shifts in tune-out wavelengths can occur due to the Earth's rotation rate. To solve this problem, I demonstrated that controlling the optical polarization, the magnetic field, and the atom beam velocity distribution can either suppress or enhance these systematic shifts. Suppressing these systemic shifts in tune-out wavelengths is useful for precision measurements used to test atomic structure calculations. By enhancing these systematic shifts, the interferometer can be a gyroscope that utilizes tune-out wavelengths.
Degree ProgramGraduate College