• Assessing the Impact of Cultural Beliefs on the Use of Evidence-Based Treatment for Diarrhea in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

      Joshi, Rhucha; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Connell, Patrick (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-30)
      Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of children under five worldwide. Recommendations for diarrhea treatment include oral rehydration therapy, continued feeding, zinc supplementation, and antibiotic use if indicated. The use of these therapies is lower than expected in developing countries. This study aims to determine how cultural beliefs impact the use of evidence-based approaches for diarrhea treatment, specifically in developing countries. A systematic review of primary research articles was done to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards evidence-based treatments, analyze care-seeking behaviors, and identify beliefs attached to treatment practices. Most cultural beliefs fall into the following themes: misconceptions about evidence-based treatments; feeding practices; home remedies and herbal medicines; inappropriate use of medications; and traditional healers and spiritual beliefs. The results show the possibility for working with traditional healers and the local population to gather more data about beliefs and practices. This information can be used to develop culturally sensitive treatment programs that can operate within the framework of local beliefs and practices.
    • SURGICAL TASK-SHIFTING IN AFRICA: A COMPREHENSIVE AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

      O'Connor, Devin; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Brady, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-10)
      Background This systematic review focuses on discussing the critical shortage of surgeons and access to surgical services in many low income African nations and the difficulties encountered by non-physician clinicians who are trained to increase the surgical workforce by carrying out less severe surgeries and peri-operative care. By critically assessing the literature this review seeks to present the benefits to surgical task shifting and the most commonly encountered problem with this type of healthcare intervention