• Determinants of LARC Usage in Women in Latin America and the Caribbean

      Jones, Ashley; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Manriquez, Maria (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-30)
      Research question: What is the difference in prevalence of LARCs between women living in urban and rural areas of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)? Background, significance, and rationale: While LARCs have been shown to be effective, approved for long duration of use, and cost-effective there is an unmet need for this type contraception in rural areas. The LAC region has a need for improved family planning services, evidenced by the high percentage of maternal deaths due to unsafe abortions. Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted between 2010 and 2015 in LAC countries were reviewed and analyzed to determine difference in prevalence of LARC use between women living in urban versus rural areas. Additionally, a systematic literature review was performed resulting in selection of 11 primary research articles evaluated for LARC prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with LARC use.
    • Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Rates in Urbanized versus Rural Populations in Developing Countries.

      Alam, Now Behar; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Conklin, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      Background: Studies estimating the current prevalence rates and future demographics of being overweight or obese and non-communicable diseases initially demonstrated Western countries had the highest rates of obesity. Now, obesity is more prevalent in urban populations of Africa, Central and South America, Asia, and Caribbean and Pacific Islands. Objective: Determine if any differences exist with the NCD rates in urbanized versus rural populations in developing countries. Methods: Using PubMed, a thorough review of the literature was conducted using various search terms related to the research topic. Results: To assess for differences between the urban and rural populations, the effect size using Cohen’s d was utilized to measure the size of associations or differences. Conclusion: Cross-sectional and observational studies comparing BMI values, blood pressure levels, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels have addressed if living in urban versus rural areas increases the prevalence of NCDs related to these variables. Urban populations and living a sedentary lifestyle does increase the likelihood of being overweight or obese, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, but not diabetes.
    • Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools

      Blumenschine, Michelle; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Bruening, Meg (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      Purpose: To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars in Arizona and differences in implementation by rural vs. urban setting. Background•Individuals in rural settings are increasingly at risk for health disparities and experience a disproportionate burden of chronic conditions. •Fruit and vegetable (F&V) is linked with lower risk for chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. •Young people do not meet the recommended servings of F&V. •Salad bars are a recommended method to increase F&V intake, however there is limited evidence of their effectiveness. No studies exist that examine implementation of salad bars in urban versus rural environments.