• Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Rates in Urbanized versus Rural Populations in Developing Countries.

      Alam, Now Behar; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Conklin, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      Background: Studies estimating the current prevalence rates and future demographics of being overweight or obese and non-communicable diseases initially demonstrated Western countries had the highest rates of obesity. Now, obesity is more prevalent in urban populations of Africa, Central and South America, Asia, and Caribbean and Pacific Islands. Objective: Determine if any differences exist with the NCD rates in urbanized versus rural populations in developing countries. Methods: Using PubMed, a thorough review of the literature was conducted using various search terms related to the research topic. Results: To assess for differences between the urban and rural populations, the effect size using Cohen’s d was utilized to measure the size of associations or differences. Conclusion: Cross-sectional and observational studies comparing BMI values, blood pressure levels, cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels have addressed if living in urban versus rural areas increases the prevalence of NCDs related to these variables. Urban populations and living a sedentary lifestyle does increase the likelihood of being overweight or obese, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, but not diabetes.
    • Novel Approach to Determine the Effect of Sub-Optimal Semen Analysis Parameters on Obtaining Euploid Blastocysts after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

      Savage, Narry; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Lipskind, Shane (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-09)
      Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is a method of screening a blastocyst for chromosomal abnormalities during in vitro fertilization (IVF) by performing a karyotype on a single cell from the blastocyst. PGS was previously offered to couples with advanced maternal age, recurrent pregnancy loss, repeated implantation failure, or severe male factor infertility. Now PGS is common practice for all IVF cycles to improve outcomes by selecting chromosomally normal (euploid) embryos for transfer. This investigation aims to study the effect of male semen parameters on the likelihood of obtaining chromosomally normal embryos using ICSI. A unique approach was taken by comparing the outcomes between multiple “paired couples” who have utilized donor eggs obtained from the same donor in the same cycle. This model was adopted to minimize oocyte variation as a confounding variable. Using retrospective record review and data analysis, the relationship between optimal vs suboptimal sperm parameters and the resultant percentage of euploid embryos obtained after ICSI was evaluated.
    • Outcome of Cervical Cerclage in Twin Pregnancies for Treatment of Ultrasound Detected Short Cervix

      Hermann, Catherine; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Elliott, John (The University of Arizona., 2018-02-26)
      Introduction: The use of cervical cerclage in twin pregnancies is a controversial topic in Obstetrics and Gynecology. It’s use is currently not recommended due to no perceived benefit and potential harm, however recent studies indicate that cerclage may be beneficial.Conclusion: The use of cerclage in twin pregnancies complicated by a TVUS cervical length of 2.0 cm or less prolonged the latency period between diagnosis of short cervix and delivery by 31 days. This data is consistent with other retrospective reviews and indicates the need for a multicenter, prospective randomized control trial.
    • Outcomes for the Hybrid Approach to First State Treatment of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

      Crawford, Daniel; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Graziano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2018-06-05)
      BACKGROUND & SIGNIFICANCE Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital condition that involves hypoplasia or atresia of left heart structures. Treatment requires three separate interventions, and the “hybrid” procedure is a less invasive alternative to the initial open-heart operation. This approach has become favorable for certain patients in recent years, but there is a need to better understand the outcomes and the factors that influence the outcomes for hybrid Stage 1 palliation of HLHS.
    • Predicting Diameter of ACL Quadrupled Hamstring Autograft in a Pediatric Population

      Rohrback, Mitchell; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Vaughn, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-06)
      Background: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears and subsequent reconstructions in the pediatric population has significantly increased over the last twenty years.2 Hamstring autograft reconstruction is a common approach to ACL reconstruction in the pediatric population because of their open physes and the reduced risk of re-tear with the use of autograft as opposed to allograft tissue.4 In recent publications, the size of the autograft has also been shown to be a significant factor influencing the risk of re-tear after ACL reconstruction with autograft.10 We attempted to determine patient specific factors that would allow us to estimate the patient’s probable quadrupled hamstring graft diameter preoperatively. Characteristics that we evaluated included age, sex, height, weight, BMI, and graft diameter determined intraoperatively. Conclusions: ACL hamstring autograft diameter in a pediatric population can most accurately be predicted using the patient’s height. These results are valuable in determining the treatment plan for children undergoing ACL reconstruction, and provide useful insight for counseling families prior to ACL reconstruction.
    • Predicting Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Study

      Amaya, Stephanie; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Gerkin, Richard; Mattox, John (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-10)
    • Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools

      Blumenschine, Michelle; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Bruening, Meg (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      Purpose: To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars in Arizona and differences in implementation by rural vs. urban setting. Background•Individuals in rural settings are increasingly at risk for health disparities and experience a disproportionate burden of chronic conditions. •Fruit and vegetable (F&V) is linked with lower risk for chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. •Young people do not meet the recommended servings of F&V. •Salad bars are a recommended method to increase F&V intake, however there is limited evidence of their effectiveness. No studies exist that examine implementation of salad bars in urban versus rural environments.
    • Prospective Comparison of Methods for Assessment of Headache Directionality

      Hoffman, Carmen; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Files, Julia (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-30)
      Response to prophylactic treatment of migraine with Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A) has been noted to be significantly correlated to the perceived direction of headache pain, namely imploding vs. exploding subtype. This study analyzed 3 methods of assessing migraine directionality in comparison to a 30-day headache log; pictorial representation, written description, and physician assessment. Each of these assessment types was shown to have poor agreement with the headache log at the initial visit. However, all 3 assessments displayed excellent agreement at the return visit, as well as significantly improved confidence in patient ability to determine headache directionality.
    • Rapid PCR TB Testing Results in 68.5% Reduction in Unnecessary Isolation Days in Smear Positive Patients.

      Patel, Ravikumar; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Saubolle, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-05)
      Acid-fast stain (AFS) of sputum smear is the standard initial test used to evaluate a patient with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Patients with positive AFS smears are normally started on TB medications and placed on TB airborne precautions during their hospital stay until the culture results are released (which can take 2-5 weeks) or patient is discharged. However, not all AFS positive smears indicate the presence of TB. Other acid fast microorganisms, especially the Non- Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) can also result in AFS positive smear hence, there is a high preponderance of false-positivity for TB in smear tests. Infection with the NTM do not require medications specific for TB or airborne isolation precautions. However, due to the lack of a quick definitive TB test most AFS smear positive patients are started on TB meds and placed in airborne isolation leading to inappropriate management of patients including unnecessary isolation, possible extension of hospital stay and increased cost. This is a prospective quality improvement study. Between Nov 2016 and August 2017 a Cepheid PCR test was performed on all AFS sputum smear positive patients from the initial sputum specimen collected on hospital admission. Background data between 2014 and 2016 was also collected for comparison prior to introduction of PCR testing. Data was used to evaluate unnecessary isolation for Smear positive patients.
    • Rapidity of Coccidioidomycosis Diagnosis and Its Effect on Healthcare Utilization.

      Mohty, Ralph; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Bollmann, KeriLyn (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-05)
      Background: Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by the fungal Coccidioides species common to Central and South America, and the southwestern United States, with Arizona claiming the vast majority of U.S.-based cases. Recognizing and diagnosing coccidioidomycosis is often difficult, with the wide range of symptoms being commonly misdiagnosed as a bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. Misdiagnosis and a delay in true diagnosis leads to ineffective, costly, and burdensome ramifications. Data investigating the diagnostic delay of Coccidioidomycosis could provide means for future changes in clinical practice. Methods: This is a two-phase study: phase one assessed disease markers and symptomatology, and phase two analyzing healthcare utilization based on electronic medical record data extraction of 139 patients. Results: The mean and median for 0-30 days of delay was $6,273 and $770 respectively; this increased at 151-183 days of diagnostic delay to $57,724 and $8,917 respectively. Small final population size precluded meaningful statistical analysis. Conclusion: Demonstrating diagnostic delay characteristics for patients with coccidioidomycosis is possible, however due to small final population size and difficulties encountered due to the innate properties of the electronic medical record, future investigation and optimization will be necessary for more powerful analysis.
    • Rattlesnake Envenomations Treated Without Antivenom

      Chang, Phoebe; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Curry, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      The standard treatment for rattlesnake envenomation (RSE) is antivenom. The clinical course of patients treated with antivenom is well described. Prior to 2000, only a whole IgG AV (IgGAV) associated with high rates of hypersensitivity reactions (HSS) was available to treat RSE. Since 2000, Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (FabAV), which has a better safety profile than IgGAV, has been primarily used. Patients with RSE may not be treated with AV for a variety of reasons including history or perceived risk of HSS, patient refusal, drug shortage, or clinical impression that AV is not indicated. Research Question: What outcomes are associated with moderate to severe RSEs treated without antivenom?
    • Regulation of an Axonal Guidance Protein, Neuro Navigator 3, in Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis

      Kousari, Arianna; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Bowser, Robert; Bakkar, Nadine (The University of Arizona., 2018-02-26)
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Neuron Navigator 3 (Nav3) is a member of the Navigator family of proteins that function as microtubule-binding proteins. Nav3 is primarily expressed in brain tissue and neuromuscular junctions, and is thought to play a significant role in neuron regeneration and axonal outgrowth. An unbiased proteomic study looking at ALS and control cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified Nav3 to be significantly upregulated in ALS compared to controls. This study aimed to validate these findings using immunohistochemistry (IHC), Real-Time PCR, and western blot to determine if Nav3 was increased in brain and spinal cord tissue from ALS patients, primary rat motor neurons, and in the SOD1G93A mouse model.
    • A Retrospective Analysis of Intra-ocular Pressure Changes after Cataract Surgery with the use of Prednisolone Acetate 1% versus Difluprednate0.05%

      Kusne, Yael; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Fintelmann, Robert (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-05)
      Cataract surgery is the most common eye procedure performed in the United States. Steroids are routinely used post-operatively to decrease inflammation. Steroids have been shown to increase intraocular pressure (IOP). Here, we present the findings of a retrospective analysis comparing two commonly prescribed steroid agents and their effect on post-operative IOP.
    • Role of Lung Clearance Index in the Early Detection of Pulmonary Changes in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

      Chaung, Monica; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Williams, Sophia (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-30)
      Pulmonary complications including acute chest syndrome are leading causes of sickle cell disease related morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that pulmonary changes can be detected during childhood. Spirometry is the current standard for measuring lung function. Growing evidence suggests that lung clearance index (LCI) is as sensitive as spirometry in identifying pulmonary changes in pediatric patients. Our cross-sectional study compared the sensitivity of LCI to spirometry in the detection of early pulmonary changes in children with sickle cell disease. Our results show that LCI significantly correlates to FEV1% predicted (Spearman’s coefficient -0.44, p = 0.003), FVC % predicted (Spearman’s coefficient -0.44, p = 0.006) and FEF25-75 (Spearman’s coefficient -0.49, p <0.001). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, LCI was found to be more sensitive than spirometry, but less specific. The data support LCI’s use as a test to screen for pulmonary changes in children with sickle cell disease. Earlier monitoring of lung function will allow for preventative therapies and delayed progression of pulmonary dysfunction.
    • Self-Esteem in Primigravida Women

      John, Jabez; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Manriquez, Maria (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-30)
      Hormonal and related biological changes associated with giving birth may initiate or precipitate a change in self-esteem. Alternatively, or additionally, the change in lifestyle associated with caring for a young infant, for example changes in normal daily activities, lack of sleep caring for the infant, change in financial security, change in the relationship with her partner, may constitute a set of stresses that have mental health consequences for the mother. Since primigravida women have no previous personal experience with childbirth they might have less of a coping strategy to deal with their emotional changes during childbirth.
    • Self-Reported Depression, Anxiety, and Adverse Educational Experiences in Youth Ages 7-18.

      Molina, Cris Jacob; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Weller, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-05)
      Psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety can have profound and lasting effects on a growing child. Children spend much of their time in school, where significant anxiety and depressive disorders may impair children’s ability to learn, socialize, and thrive. It is already known that depression and anxiety can compromise memory and other cognitive functions.1 The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), self-report measures of depression and anxiety in youth, were used to assess symptoms of depression and anxiety in an outpatient clinical sample. Scores on these instruments were correlated with parent report of children’s significant educational events (e.g., evaluation for eligibility for special education services, enrollment in special education services, and repeating a grade). The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported depression and anxiety and adverse educational experiences. The hypothesis was that children with higher depression and anxiety scores would have greater occurrence of adverse educational events compared to those with lower scores. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses were mixed. Future studies using larger sample sizes may have the potential to identify youth at risk of adverse educational experiences due to anxiety and depressive symptoms.
    • SURGICAL TASK-SHIFTING IN AFRICA: A COMPREHENSIVE AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

      O'Connor, Devin; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Brady, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-10)
      Background This systematic review focuses on discussing the critical shortage of surgeons and access to surgical services in many low income African nations and the difficulties encountered by non-physician clinicians who are trained to increase the surgical workforce by carrying out less severe surgeries and peri-operative care. By critically assessing the literature this review seeks to present the benefits to surgical task shifting and the most commonly encountered problem with this type of healthcare intervention
    • Survey Determining Involvement of Certified Athletic Trainers in Return to Activity/Play Decisions and Concussion Education

      Olla, Danielle; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Handmaker, Hirsch (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-10)
      In the some states a Certified Athletic Trainer (AT) has the ability to determine if a player can return to activity or play (RTP) following a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), also known as a concussion. Premature return to activity or RTP and sustaining another concussion can result in further axonal damage, prolonged complications and rarely, death. There currently is no standardized education and certification for ATs regarding concussion management, and no data exists determining how often ATs are involved in return to activity or RTP decisions. The aim of this study was to survey ATs and establish a baseline of their involvement in return to activity and RTP decisions and determine what type and amount concussion education ATs are completing at the present time. A twenty (20) question electronic survey was sent to 2084 randomly selected ATs registered with the National Athletic Trainer Association (NATA). 382 responses were collected in a 38‐day period. The survey was successfully completed by a total of 356 ATs from across the United States.
    • A Systematic Review of the Risk of HIV Transmission with Concurrent Schistosomiasis Infection

      Lee, Anne; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Beyda, David (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-05)
      Schistosomiasis and HIV are both significant causes of morbidity in low resource settings worldwide, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research has indicated that there may be a link between the two infections--specifically that schistosomiasis infection may be a risk factor for HIV transmission. After a comprehensive review was performed to understand current knowledge in the field, a systematic review with meta-analysis exploring the interaction of the two infections was conducted to analyze this relationship. An exhaustive search in PUBMED and Google Scholar of was conducted with search terms related to schistosomiasis and HIV, and studies that were published within the past 30 years in English were included. In
    • Targeted Treatment on PTEN Mutated GBM Cell Lines using Metformin and Chlorpromazine

      Grecu, Iulius; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Tran, Nhan (The University of Arizona., 2018-02-26)
      Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most aggressive and lethal of all human cancers. Characteristically, GBM is genetically heterogenous with different tumors portions exhibiting vastly different genetic profiles. Due to this, GBM patients are plagued with poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. Within the last decade there has been an increase in knowledge of the molecular finger print of GBM but improvement in patient outcome has been slow as personalized treatment regimens have not been linked to significant improvement. However, there is hope with feasible multiagent personalized regimens as well as expanding the amount of treatment options with repurposed agents and immunologic modulators improving patient outcomes. One hypothesized gene of interest in tumor development and progression is PTEN. In this study we investigate two repurpose agents Metformin and Chlorpromazine which are thought to depress downstream oncogenic proteins specific to the PTEN pathway using a cell culture model. For this study four Xenograft cell lines with differing PTEN status were treated with titrated concentrations of Metformin and Chlorpromazine. After treatment, results were quantified by SiRNA function using cell-titer glo assay a marker for cell viability.