• Targeted Treatment on PTEN Mutated GBM Cell Lines using Metformin and Chlorpromazine

      Grecu, Iulius; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Tran, Nhan (The University of Arizona., 2018-02-26)
      Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most aggressive and lethal of all human cancers. Characteristically, GBM is genetically heterogenous with different tumors portions exhibiting vastly different genetic profiles. Due to this, GBM patients are plagued with poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. Within the last decade there has been an increase in knowledge of the molecular finger print of GBM but improvement in patient outcome has been slow as personalized treatment regimens have not been linked to significant improvement. However, there is hope with feasible multiagent personalized regimens as well as expanding the amount of treatment options with repurposed agents and immunologic modulators improving patient outcomes. One hypothesized gene of interest in tumor development and progression is PTEN. In this study we investigate two repurpose agents Metformin and Chlorpromazine which are thought to depress downstream oncogenic proteins specific to the PTEN pathway using a cell culture model. For this study four Xenograft cell lines with differing PTEN status were treated with titrated concentrations of Metformin and Chlorpromazine. After treatment, results were quantified by SiRNA function using cell-titer glo assay a marker for cell viability.
    • Transcriptional Regulation of the Type 1 Interferon Response by a Nuclear Pore Protein.

      Aintablian, Haig; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Gustin, Kurt (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      The type I interferon (IFN) response is an integral immune response for host defense against viruses. When a virus enters a cell, cellular pattern recognition receptors bind to viral structures leading to transcription and synthesis of interferons ultimately resulting in viral clearance (5). More than twenty unique IFN genes have been found in humans. They are typically divided among three classes, simply labeled Type I IFN, Type II IFN, and Type III IFN. Interferons belonging to all three classes are important for fighting viral infections and for the regulation of the immune system. Specifically, the type I interferons are produced when cells recognize viral particles within them. Simply put, this response, which results in the production of IFN- β, is akin to an alarm being sounded, alerting the body to viral invasion. The transcriptional induction of IFN- β requires numerous signaling molecules that converge on the activation pathways of various transcription factors, ultimately leading to the antiviral response. Although well studied, many components of the type I interferon response are still being deciphered.
    • Uncomfortable at best and dehumanizing at worst: The experience of transgender men seeking reproductive and family planning care

      Geiger, Alex; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Coles, Sarah (The University of Arizona., 2018-02-26)
      Transgender men face significant barriers in accessing culturally-sensitive reproductive and family planning care, and as a result, are less likely to be up to date on recommending reproductive health screenings. It is unclear whether the primary barrier is health knowledge (HK) or comfort seeking care (CSC), or communication barriers with their provider(PC). An eighteen-item survey (n=221) was designed to assess these three factors. While the vast majority of participants had high levels of health literacy, nearly half of participants would not feel comfortable seeking reproductive healthcare or family planning care (48.5%). Improved CSC and PC were found among transgender men that receive care at locations that primarily treat LGBTQ-patients. Participants self-reported barriers included poor provider training/knowledge on transgender health, assumptions made by providers, and fear of seeking care due to discrimination. The results of this study indicate a need for improved provider education and highlight significant barriers that exist for transgender men seeking reproductive healthcare.
    • An Unusual Complication of Gastrografin®: Gastric Precipitation

      Bergin, Edward; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; VanSonnenberg, Eric (The University of Arizona., 2018-04-10)
      Gastrografin®, an oral contrast agent, is important for non-operative management of small bowel obstruction and post-operative ileus. However, Gastrografin® can cause complications with its propensity to precipitate in an acidic environment. We describe a case of Gastrografin® precipitation in the stomach that resulted from delayed gastric emptying and increased gastric acid secretion in an elderly woman.
    • Using Hyperopia Measurements to Predict Need for Surgery in Children with Accommodative Esotropia

      Jones, Nathan; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Salevitz, Mark (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-30)
      Background: Esotropic strabismus is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. In children, uncorrected esotropia may result in permanent loss of vision due to amblyopia, a condition where the nonpreferred, crossing eye is suppressed. Early identification and treatment of esotropia in children is critical, as doing so may prevent permanent loss of vision.
    • Why do Physicians Volunteer at Medical Schools and Free Clinics?

      Eid, Tarek; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Briney, Stephanie (The University of Arizona., 2018-03-28)
      Purpose To understand the reasons why physicians volunteer their time to provide healthcare to the uninsured and to educate future physicians. Another goal is to define the barriers that prevent physicians from volunteering. Background Physician volunteers play an integral role in educating medical students and providing health care to the uninsured. Therefore, understanding the reasons why physicians volunteer their time can possibly improve recruitment procedures. It may help clinics and medical schools advertise to prospective volunteer physicians by emphasizing the positives and directly addressing the main concerns in volunteering. Materials and Methods A survey was distributed to physicians from multiple specialties who work at the University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix and Banner University Medical Center – Phoenix. The survey consisted of questions regarding physicians’ background information, volunteer experience, barriers to volunteerism, and motivation behind their volunteerism. Motivation was evaluated utilizing a validated and widely used survey called the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI). Results A total of 100 physicians responded to the survey. 84% of physicians cited “lack of time” as being the primary barrier to volunteerism. 25% and 22% of the physicians cited “Financial Costs” and “Unaware of Opportunity” as barriers, respectively. With respect to VIF components, the “Values” category showed the highest score of 30.38 out of a possible 35 ,while “career factors” observed the lowest score of 14.09 Conclusions Medical schools and clinics could possibly improve their recruitment efforts by making it less time consuming for physicians to volunteer and by minimizing the financial costs to physicians. They could also benefit by advertising the altruistic and humanitarian nature of the volunteer activity.