• HYBRID AUTOMATED UAV TARGET RECOGNITION SYSTEM

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Hung, David; McKeever, Kennon; Ramirez, Ricardo; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Accurate image classification is one of the core challenges in computer vision. At the annual AUVSI SUAS competition, this challenge is faced in the form of ground target classification from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Additionally, due to the constraints imposed by the UAV platform, the system design must consider factors such as size, weight, and power consumption. To meet performance requirements while respecting such limitations, the system was broken into two subsystems: an onboard subsystem and a ground based subsystem. This design allows the onboard subsystem, comprised of a DSLR camera and single-board computer, to capture ground target images and perform rudimentary target detection and localization. For further processing and to ultimately classify the targets in each image, data packets are sent to the ground-based subsystem via a 5 GHz wireless link. Convolutional networks are utilized on the ground to achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in classification.
    • TELEMETRY ENCODER MINIATURIZATION AND RUGGEDIZATION USING MULTI-CHIP MODULE AND SILICON DIE SCAVENGING TECHNOLOGY

      Wolfson, Scott C.; U.S. Army Redstone Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The primary objective of this technical paper is to provide details pertaining to telemetry encoder size and weight reductions using Multi-Chip Module (MCM) design techniques and a silicon die scavenging process to decrease MCM development cost. Additional use cases relevant to the Department of Defense (DoD) community and recommendations for future efforts will also be presented.
    • TRACKING INFORMATION IN SAR IMAGE FORMATION AND CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS

      Rajagopal, Abhejit; Radzicki, Vincent; Chandrasekaran, Shivkumar; Lee, Hua; UCSB, Dept Electrical & Comp. Eng. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Traditional target detection pipelines involve two sequential steps: the formation of a range-profile or likely-image, and the classification of likely targets within that image. Although it has been shown that target tracking in the RaDAR image-domain can be unnecessarily noisy, with more accurate and efficient implementations involving a direct analysis of the measured wavefield, image formation remains a desirable output in many applications due to its highly descriptive and interpretable nature. In this paper, we outline a mechanism for formalizing and accelerating this procedure in application-specific use cases. Enabled by recent advances in deep learning, we present a pipeline for automatically selecting an “optimal” filtered back-projection model, forming a likelyimage, and performing target recognition and classification. The architecture allows practitioners to track and optimize the flow of information throughout the pipeline, enabling applications that utilize only intermediate outputs of the algorithm.
    • Graph Theoretic Modeling and Energy Analysis of Wireless Telemetry Networks

      Cetinkaya, Egemen K.; Kosbar, Kurt; Shatto, Tristan A.; Telemetry Learning Center Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Network science provides essential tools to model and analyze topology and structure of dynamic wireless telemetry networks. In this paper, we model wireless telemetry networks using three well-known graph models: Gilbert random graph, Erdos-Renyi random graph, and random geometric graph models. Next, we analyze the connectivity of synthetically generated topologies using graph energy, which is the sum of absolute values of eigenvalues. Our results indicate second-order curves for adjacency and Laplacian energies as the connectivity of synthetically generated networks improve. The normalized Laplacian energy decreases, converging to the theoretical lower bound as the connectivity reaches to a maximum.
    • LTE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR COVERAGE AND DOPPLER REDUCTION IN RANGE TELEMETRY

      Kogiantis, Achilles; Rege, Kiran; Triolo, Anthony A.; Vencore Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      A novel approach employing 4G LTE Cellular Technology for Test Range Telemetry is presented. Providing aeronautical mobile telemetry using commercial off the shelf (COTS) cellular equipment poses many challenges, including: Three-dimensional (3D) coverage, need for uninterrupted high data throughputs, and very high Doppler speeds of the Test Articles (TA). Each of these requirements is difficult to meet with a standard cellular approach. We present a novel architecture that provides 3D coverage over the span of a test range, allowing the TA to establish a radio link with base stations that have a manageable Doppler due to the reduced projected TA speed on the radio link line. Preliminary results illustrate that a variety of flight plans can be accommodated with commercial LTE technology by employing LTE’s mobility mechanisms and adding centralized control. The resulting network architecture and Radio Access Network topology allow very high throughputs to be delivered throughout the test range with a judicious placement of base stations.
    • ADVANCES IN A LOW-COST SOFTWARE-DEFINED TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Don, Michael; Ilg, Mark; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed a Pulse Code Modulated (PCM)/Binary Frequency Shift Key (BFSK) telemetry system using a low-cost commercial Software Defined Radio (SDR). Where as traditional radio systems are implemented in hardware,much of the functionality of SDR is defined in software. This gives them the flexibility to accommodate military telemetry standards as well as other specialized functions. After a summary of previous development, new telemetry advances are described, focusing on telemetry transmitter, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption, and layered protocol design. Many of these functions were proven in a field experiment at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ in March of 2017 where data was successfully encrypted, transmitted, decoded, and processed in real-time.
    • ON IF-TO-BASEBAND TRANSLATION AND RESAMPLING IN SAMPLED-DATA RECEIVERS

      Rice, Michael; Hogstrom, Christopher; Nash, Chris; BYU, Dept Elec & Comp Eng (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper summarizes the design of a discrete-time quadrature downconversion and resampling processor that operates on samples of a 70 MHz IF signal. The unique properties of discrete-time processing—aliasing due to resampling bandpass signals and polyphase filter decompositions—are applied to create a low-complexity approach that does not require any arithmetic operations at the IF sample rate. The required tasks are performed in two stages: a downsample-by-2 operation followed by a more traditional resampler based on a polyphase filterbank.
    • PERFORMANCE OF IEEE 802.11S FOR WIRELESS MESH TELEMETRY NETWORKS

      Kosbar, Kurt; Zawodniok, Maciej; Price, Nathan D.; Chandran, Arul Mathi Maran; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Wide area sensor networks have numerous agricultural, industrial, scientific, medical, and military applications. For many years now, such networks have been implemented through wireless mesh networks. As wireless mesh networks have come to maturity, several network standards have become readily available. The WiFi mesh extension 802.11s was finalized in 2008 and officially adopted into the 802.11 standard in 2012, is extremely interesting thanks to the wide spread adoption of WiFi and low cost. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a small 802.11s net-work implemented on low-cost, off-the-shelf single board computers for the purpose of building a telemetry sensor network.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE TM GROUND STATION FOR KSLV-II WITH A RS422-TO-ETHERNET TM PCM DECODER AND MAGALI TM SOFTWARE

      Yoon, Wonju; Noh, Seongmin; Korea Aerospace Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The onboard telemetry (TM) system of Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II) transmits PCM framedatatotheTMgroundstationviaRS422beforeflightorviaRFlinkduringflight. Thispaper describes the development of a portable TM ground station for KSLV-II that can decommutate the PCM frame data received via RS422. The developed portable TM ground station consists of two major components: a RS422-to-Ethernet TM PCM decoder and a laptop running MAGALI commercial TM software. The TM PCM decoder transforms a serial bit stream of the PCM data received via RS422 into multicast UDP packets. The MAGALI TM software supports an Ethernet acquisition module for the reception of the PCM frame data, which enables decommutation of the UDP packet-based PCM frame data received from the TM PCM decoder. Furthermore, the use of multicast UDP enables simultaneous decommutation of the PCM frame data at multiple laptops running MAGALI.
    • CHALLENGES IN THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AIRBORNE TELEMETRY PROCESSING SYSTEMS

      Otranto, John; Eckman, Bill; Irvin, Dana; Tao, Felix; Lokshin, Kirill; Puri, Amit; Ingenicomm, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      While typical telemetry processing systems are fixed, ground-based assets, certain mission profiles or telemetry acquisition models may involve telemetry processing systems which reside on other platforms, such as ships, mobile vehicles, or airplanes. The design and implementation of telemetry processing systems for these platforms poses unique challenges, which may include requirements for unusual mechanical packaging, heightened electromagnetic sensitivity, or specialized electrical interfaces. This paper presents some of the key challenges involved in the design and implementation of an airborne telemetry processing system and discusses how lessons learned from solving these challenges may be applied to future telemetry processing system designs.
    • INVESTIGATING UNKNOWN IRIG CHAPTER 4, CLASS I OR II FORMATS

      Rettig, Wayne; Lumistar Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This describes one approach to investigating an unknown IRIG 106, Chapter, 4 Class I or Class II Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) format. The assumption is that you are supplied with decrypted data and clock signals for the unknown PCM stream. This technique is optimized for 16, 12, or 8-bit Word Minor Frames. Standard IRIG 106, Appendix C, Table C-1, Frame Synchronization (Frame Sync) values of 32, 24, 16-bit patterns are simpler to investigate. Other IRIG Frame Sync patterns can also be investigated, but are not dealt with in this document. This document will utilize a sample 24-bit Frame Sync pattern, because it will produce Endian issues in the recorded data.
    • DESIGN OF A LONG RANGE COGNITIVE HF RADIO WITH A TUNED COMPACT ANTENNA

      Bose, Tamal; Xin, Hao; Teku, Noel; Gulati, Gitansh; Asadi, Hamed; Vanhoy, Garrett; Abdelrahman, Ahmed H.; Morris, Kevin; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn; University of Colorado Boulder, Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering Dept (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      High frequency (HF) communications, ranging from 3 to 30 MHz, are utilized by many radio enthusiasts to conduct transmissions with users across the globe. These communications depend on successfully reflecting signals off of the ionosphere. However, numerous factors (i.e. power level, coding, modulation, etc.), combined with the instability of the ionosphere, can make transmissions over this frequency band unreliable. Thus, an HF communication system design is proposed to offer more robust long range HF communications. The system has a cognitive engine that can determine transmission parameters (i.e. coding, modulation, etc.) capable of providing a high throughput and low bit error rate in various environments. The system also has a low-profile helical antenna that, combined with a matching circuit, is capable of receiving signals over different subsets of the HF band. These two components constitute a system capable of effectively transmitting and receiving signals over the HF band.
    • RAPIDLY RECONFIGURABLE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

      Noonan, Patrick J.; Whittington, Austin J.; Ibaroudene, Hakima; Moodie, Myron L.; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The growth of network and distributed technologies in flight test instrumentation (FTI) has provided the benefits of flexibility, scalability, and compatibility with prevalent computing capabilities. However, to achieve these capabilities, the complexity of each piece of FTI and the overall system has increased dramatically. Even with systems composed of equipment from a single vendor, it is important to have management systems that provide the flexibility to adapt quickly to various system configurations and present unified information to the flight test users. The growth of network technologies and then standardized approaches such as iNET standards becoming accepted IRIG 106 standards is leading to the growth of multi-vendor systems. These multi-vendor systems further increase the need for rapidly reconfigurable management systems. This paper describes a constraints engine we have developed to enable flexible system management systems and reflects on how these techniques have been used successfully in the iNET System Manager.
    • SPECTRUM RELOCATION FUND TRANSITION AGILITY CHALLENGE

      von Niederhausern, Josef; Wade, Terry; Hagg, Michael; Morgan, Matthew; Uhland, Greg; Berard, Alfredo; Klein, Lorin; Eglin AFB, 96th Test Wing (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Due to Auction 97 frequency sell off and anticipated higher usage of C-Band, space time code (STC) and low-density parity-check (LDPC) code were evaluated for latency, characterization, and performance during flight. The benefit of an STC path can be observed by measuring the channel power of a dual antenna and comparing it to the contributions from each antenna independently. The STC provides a benefit only when both antennas are visible to a receiver and when the combined result of a dual antenna system would destructively add. The Eglin Spectrum Reallocation Fund (SRF) Project transitions the United States Air Force (USAF) aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) from operations in frequencies auctioned by the Department of Commerce (DOC) as part of Auction 97. This paper describes the AMT test methods used and upgrades accomplished by the 96th Test Wing in order to meet requirements of Auction 97.
    • BOEING NW TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Boeing Test & Evaluation; Gregoire, William C. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
    • LINK DEPENDENT ADAPTIVE RADIO – DESIGN FOR iNET

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Alam, Tasmeer; Morgan State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper focuses on the design of a simple Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signaling structure for the Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR) prototype wireless radio communication system to meet the timing requirements of the iNET standard. Built for aeronautical telemetry, LDAR adapts its modulation and coding scheme based on the channel condition in real time. In this paper, a simple protocol for transmission of Command Message and Data Message between Ground Station and Test Article is discussed. This protocol includes all analysis for the continuous adaptation of modulation scheme and coding rate to maximize throughput while ensuring a minimum level of link quality. This project was a collaborative effort between Morgan State University and Georgia Tech Research Institute and is a continuation of our previously published work on LDAR.
    • AUTONOMOUS GROUND RECONNAISSANCE DRONE USING ROBOT OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS)

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Hung, David; Tang, Cinthya; Allred, Coby; McKeever, Kennon; Murphy, James; Herriman, Ricky; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The Arizona Autonomous Club is a student organization at the University of Arizona which designs, builds, and competes with Unmanned Air Systems (UAS). This year, a 25% scale Xtreme Decathlon model aircraft was selected and successfully converted into a fully autonomous UAS for the AUVSI Student Unmanned Aerial Systems (SUAS) 2017 competition. The UAS utilizes a Pixhawk autopilot unit, which is an independent, open-hardware project aiming at providing high-end autopilot hardware at low costs and high availability. The Pixhawk runs an efficient real time operating system (RTOS) and includes sensors such as a GPS unit, IMUs, airspeed, etc. The UAS also includes an onboard imaging system, which is controlled by an onboard computer (OBC). The Pixhawk and OBC are interconnected with two ground control stations (GCS) using the Robot Operating System (ROS) framework, which is capable of extending overall system capabilities to include an expanded telemetry downlink, obstacle avoidance, and manual overrides.
    • LINK QUALITY METRICS FOR ADAPTIVE CODING AND MODULATION WITH SOQPSK AND OFDM

      Wang, Enkuang D.; Brothers, Timothy J.; Causey, Richard T.; Georgia Tech Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In previous work, we presented a link quality metric for adaptive modulation and coding of two standard telemetry waveforms, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and shaped-offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK). That metric unified error vector magnitude (EVM) and Godard dispersion, for OFDM and SOQPSK, respectively, in the contexts of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. In this paper, we present an alternative metric based on low density parity check (LDPC) decoding iterations. We show this new metric to be an equally effective substitute for AWGN channels but also to be applicable to a wider variety of channels, including those with multipath and interference. Furthermore, we show the metric to be robust within sub-optimal, lower complexity receiver architectures.
    • ELASTIC NET FOR CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN MASSIVE MIMO

      Peken, Ture; Tandon, Ravi; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Next generation wireless systems will support higher data rates, improved spectral efficiency, and less latency. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is proposed to satisfy these demands. In massive MIMO, many benefits come from employing hundreds of antennas at the base station (BS) and serving dozens of user terminals (UTs) per cell. As the number of antennas increases at the BS, the channel becomes sparse. By exploiting sparse channel in massive MIMO, compressive sensing (CS) methods can be implemented to estimate the channel. In CS methods, the length of pilot sequences can be shortened compared to pilot-based methods. In this paper, a novel channel estimation algorithm based on a CS method called elastic net is proposed. Channel estimation accuracy of pilot-based, lasso, and elastic-net based methods in massive MIMO are compared. It is shown that the elastic-net based method gives the best performance in terms of error for the less pilot symbols and SNR values.
    • INTEGRATING STL INTO LOW-SWAP ASSURED POSITION, NAVIGATION, AND TIMING SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

      Sinden, Jon; Perdue, Lisa; Spectracom (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Today’s military communications and information dominance systems rely on available and accurate GNSS PNT signals to provide leaders the information required to make timely and effective decisions. The proliferation of GNSS-degrading and denying devices across state and non-state actors puts this critical information overmatch capability in jeopardy. Traditional PNT devices utilize various alternative internal components to maintain holdover of the PNT data during loss of GNSS input but are susceptible to drift over time. This presentation discusses how the Satellite Time and Location (STL) service integrated into low Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) assured PNT devices can provide critical continuity of operations when GPS is unavailable. Comparison timing testing between a GPS-disciplined oscillator in holdover and STL is presented. Future considerations for STL as an alternative position and navigation signal of opportunity are also discussed.