• AN EXPANDED COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM FOR OFF-GRID TELEMETRY

      Marcellin, Michael; Boyer, Kyle; Brubaker, Laura; Everly, Kyle; Herriman, RIchard; Houston, Paul; Ruckle, Sean; Scobie, Rory; Ulanday, Ian (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The drivers of the University of Arizona Baja racing team must be intensely focused on tackling the jumps, boulders, mud bogs, and other challenges in the four-hour endurance race. These obstacles are just as demanding on the vehicle as the driver, so the pit crew needs effective ways of detecting problems within the vehicle before serious damage occurs. Our solution is a wide range, AES encrypted, Wi-Fi communications system that supports full IP protocol and live video feed, allowing our telemetry data to be accessed through a smartphone via a web interface. To provide a wide range of communication options, our system supports VOX and push-to-talk audio compatible with third-party radios, and has an on-board HDMI screen for text-based communications. Finally, our system is backwards compatible with prior generations to make repairs and replacements easy.
    • OVERVIEW OF SECURE COGNITIVE RADIO MAC PROTOCOL IN THE PROPOSED 3.5 GHZ BAND

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Oyediran, David; Morgan State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Spectrum sharing between federal and commercial users is proposed by the FCC and NTIA to open up the 3.5 GHz band for wireless broadband use. The proposed technology requires the detection and subsequent allocation of available licensed spectrum for temporary use by other users without compromising the privacy of the licensed user. DoD has a documented requirement of 865 MHz by 2025 to support telemetry but only 445 MHz is presently available. Research is presently on-going at DoD to realize, test and evaluate spectrum efficient technology with the aim to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate technology components required to enable flight and ground test telemetry operations. The use of cognitive radio (CR) in spectrum sharing has gained much popularity in that CR senses the unused spectrum at a specific time and location and dynamically allocates to users as required. This paper will provide an overview of a secured CR Media Access Protocols using the IEEE 802.22. Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) will be utilized for protocol transmission in order to properly identify user’s location and identity thereby providing a secured network against false alarm from external attack.
    • NON-TRADITIONAL FLIGHT TEST SENSING SYSTEMS

      Kilpatrick, Stephen A.; Whittington, Austin J.; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Traditional flight test sensing applications require installation of not only the sensor but also supporting cabling and interfacing infrastructure. The cost of this supporting infrastructure increases when it must cross pressure vessel boundaries, extend long distances, or interfere with operation of the aircraft. The continuing cost and schedule pressures on flight test programs demand approaches that minimize installation complexity and reduce the need to modify the aircraft under test. Some emerging approaches have leveraged wireless techniques for data transmission but this can only be used in certain circumstances and does not address the problem of power distribution. This paper describes ongoing research into alternative sensing approaches that utilize a mix of video processing, distributed processing, and power harvesting to provide additional solutions.
    • ON THE DESIGN OF A SQUARE-ROOT NYQUIST PULSE SHAPING FILTER FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

      Rice, Michael; Josephson, Chad; Brigham Young University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Bandwidth efficient linear modulations require a pulse shape with finite support in the time domain while simultaneously achieving good spectral containment in the frequency domain. The square-root Nyquist pulse achieves zero intersymbol interference (ISI) at its matched-filter output but does so with infinite support in the time domain. This paper investigates three different methods for generating an FIR approximation of a square-root Nyquist pulse.
    • A PROPOSED REVISION TO IRIG 218 BASED ON REAL WORLD EXPERIENCE

      Thom, Gary A.; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The Range Commanders Council has been attempting to standardize Telemetry over IP (TMoIP) for many years now. While the attempt has been valiant, the outcome to date has not been very successful. As a result, many vendors have implemented their own proprietary methods for sending PCM data over IP networks resulting in a lack of interoperability. As telemetry ground stations are finally making the move toward network centric architectures, it is worth considering the lessons learned over the previous 10 years of designing, installing, troubleshooting and optimizing telemetry data distribution over IP networks. This paper describes a proposed revision to IRIG 218 based on these real life experiences. It discusses the critical decisions and architectural decisions to be made and some of the pitfalls to be avoid.
    • A TRADE STUDY TO DETERMINE THE BEST LOCATION FOR TM RECEIVERS

      Diehl, Michael; Fraser, Ryan; Green, Jonathan; Swain, Jason; Air Combat Systems Directorate, U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      As part of a larger effort to improve telemetry link availability, the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) is currently in the process of upgrading its telemetry receivers. As YPG begins integrating new receivers into existing range infrastructure, the question of where to place these receivers to provide maximum benefit must be considered. Should the receivers be placed at each of the remote antennas or should they be centrally located at the primary telemetry site? Although many Telemetry-over-Internet Protocol (TMoIP) and radio frequency (RF) over fiber solutions exist to transport these data, there are numerous concerns including network and Cybersecurity limitations to consider when implementing either of these approaches. This paper will document the trade study conducted at YPG to explore the benefits of each approach.
    • EFFICIENT DATA STORAGE, SAMPLING, AND RETRIEVAL BY LEVERAGING OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES

      Ferrill, Micha; Avionics Test & Analysis Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper demonstrates the use of open-source software tools to manage large data sets. Advances in technology have greatly reduced the cost of data storage and processing systems. The ability to handle large amounts of data efficiently while retaining fine-grain control of the data retrieval process becomes a challenge. In particular, traditional data processing applications are inadequate to handle the large data sets typically encountered in IRIG-106 Chapter 10[1] data files. We answer this challenge by using readily available, open-source tools that efficiently store and retrieve IRIG-106 Chapter 10 data to/from a file-based database. We will demonstrate a method that facilitates a separation between the parsing of raw input data and the display of desired information at a user-defined sample rate. This open-source based solution provides a low-cost, reliable, and efficient means for handling large amounts of data at a high rate of speed.
    • AN UNBALANCED FEED DESIGN FOR WIDEBAND PHASED ARRAYS

      Landgren, David W.; Dykes, Daniel J.P.; Allen, Kenneth W.; Advanced Concepts Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In this work, a planar phased array antenna was engineered with ultra-wideband (UWB) performance that covers portions of the L-, S-, and C-bands. The unit cell design contains a driven layer that is directly connected to a single coaxial feed and a parasitic layer located above the driven layer separated by free space. This design does not require a balun or any vias between the antenna ground plane and the driven layer, resulting in a simple antenna stack-up consisting of only planar layers, aside from the feed structure. As a consequence, the complexity, and potentially sensitivity to mechanical tolerances, is reduced. The simulated results of this unbalanced phased array are discussed and experimentally validated.
    • OPTIMUM PARAMETER COMBINATIONS FOR MULTI-H FULL RESPONSE CONTINUOUS PHASE MODULATION

      Xingwen, Ding; Hongyu, Chang; Ming, Chen; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      According to IRIG 106-15, the ARTM CPM waveform, a kind of multi-h partial response continuous phase modulation (CPM), has almost three times the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM and approximately the same detection efficiency of PCM/FM. But the improved spectral efficiency of ARTM CPM comes at the price of computational complexity in the receiver. This paper focuses on multi-h full response CPM, which generally has less detection complexity than ARTM CPM, but also has good spectral efficiency and detection efficiency. Taking the minimum Euclidean distance, spectral efficiency and detection complexity as judgment criterions, optimum parameter combinations for multi-h full response CPM are presented.
    • ENERGY EFFICIENT CELLULAR NETWORK USING ADAPTIVE USER CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR SPARSELY POPULATED AREA

      Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Kassa, Hailu B.; Morgan State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In this paper, an algorithm for distance aware energy efficient Base Stations (BSs) is proposed, which exploits the knowledge of the distance between the Mobile User (MUs) and the BS. The proposed algorithm changes the cell radius depending on user distribution in the cell. In this case adaptive (dynamically changing) concentric circles are virtually drawn so that the UEs in the same concentric circle can get constant power from the BS. It means that the mobile users(MUs) are clustered based on the distance from the BS. The energy consumption has been evaluated without sacrificing significant offered Quality of Service (QoS) on the cellular networks. The proposed scheme aids to achieve energy saving as a result of reduced transmit power based on reducing the radius of the concentric. As the radius reduces the transmit power is also reduced logarithmically. The system uses Omni directional antenna which covers all 360 degree of the cell at once. The simulation result shows that as the distance from the BS decreases, the transmission power decreases and the energy also decreases. The distance or the radius variation dynamically is based on the number of users in that track comparing to the minimum required number of threshold users. The result shows that an average of 0.1762 dB or 1.04 Watt which is 9.45% of the maximum transmit power can be saved by dynamically varying the base station the radius at the area of low traffic load for a single scan.
    • HIGH-PRECISION MOTION ESTIMATION SYSTEMS FOR UUV NAVIGATION

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent; UCSB, Dept Electrical & Comp. Eng. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper is the summary of a sequence of research tasks in the area of 3D bearing-angle estimation for UUV homing and docking exercises. The main focus is to simplify the concept as well as computation efficiency of the homing and docking tasks, by elevating the estimation modality from the conventional twin-receiver configuration to the 2D circular arrays. The objective is to utilize the multi-element receiver array for the entire navigation procedure, including bearing-angle estimation, optimal path planning, and high-precision docking.
    • FEATURE SELECTION FOR CYCLOSTATIONARY-BASED SIGNAL CLASSIFICATION

      Bose, Tamal; Vanhoy, Garrett; Teku, Noel; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Cognitive radio (CR) is a concept that imagines a radio (wireless transceiver) that contains an embedded intelligent agent that can adapt to its spectral environment. Using a software defined radio (SDR), a radio can detect the presence of other users in the spectrum and adapt accordingly, but it is important in many applications to discern between individual transmitters and this can be done using signal classification. The use of cyclostationary features have been shown to be robust to many common channel conditions. One such cyclostationary feature, the spectral correlation density(SCD),hasseenlimiteduseinsignalclassificationuntilnowbecauseitisacomputationally intensive process. This work demonstrates how feature selection techniques can be used to enable real-time classification. The proposed technique is validated using 8 common modulation formats that are generated and collected over the air.
    • A SUMMARY OF DATA-AIDED EQUALIZER EXPERIMENTS AT EDWARDS AFB

      Rice, Michael; Hogstrom, Christopher; Nash, Chris; Ravert, Jeff; Saquib, Mohammad; Afran, Md. Shah; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; Perrins, Erik; Temple, Kip; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper summarizes the analysis of bit error rate data captured during flight tests designed to compare data-aided equalizers with SOQPSK-TG to unequalized and currently available blind, adaptive equalizers with SOQPSK-TG. The number of bit errors,on a second-by-second basis, are analyzed. The results are different for each test point. Given the uncertain behavior of the preamble detector for the data-aided equalizer and the differing channel conditions between the data-aided equalizer channel and the conventional serial streaming telemetry channel, we are unable to draw any firm comparative conclusions.
    • PREDICTIVE TELEMETRY MODELS FOR AEROSPACE FLIGHT MISSIONS

      Liaghati, Amir; Chang, Nick; Liaghati, Mahsa; Blumer, John; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Designing an efficient telemetry system is one of the most challenging tasks in the aerospace industry due to the limited telemetry bandwidth and the restricted radio frequency spectrum allocation. In a traditional telemetry system design, a large percentage of the allotted bandwidth is consumed by the overhead information to follow various standards and protocols which results in inefficiency of output data. A dynamic simulation model is created by using the Matlab/Simulink to analyze the telemetry system performance, and it is also used to predict the overall downlink data, including sensor instrumentation, flight critical information, video, and the Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) overhead over the mission event timeline.
    • SPARSE MMSE EQUALIZER FOR GTR-STBC IN AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

      Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of sparse minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalizer for generalized time-reversed space-time block codes (GTR-STBC) in aeronautical telemetry. GTR-STBC equipped with MMSE equalizer performs the best trade-off between the signal-tonoise ratio and inter-symbol interference by allocating unequal power over aeronautical telemetry channels. However, aeronautical telemetry channels are in general consists of larger delay spreads which make the MMSE equalization of aeronautical channels with GTR-STBC computationally complex. Interestingly enough, in spite of larger delays aeronautical channels are made of few sparsely distributed multipaths and therefore their MMSE equalizers are highly compressible. In this paper, compressed sensing based greedy algorithm is used for the design of sparse MMSE equalizer and a convex curve-fitting algorithm is used to find the sub-optimum power allocation parameter at the same sparsity level for GTR-STBC. Our simulation results show that 75-90% of the non-zero equalizer taps can be reduced with a slight relaxation of the mean-squared error (or equivalentlyslight degradationof bit-errorrate performance). It isalso observedthat the optimum transmitter power profile for the sparse MMSE equalizer is different than that of the non-sparse equalizer.
    • MULTIHOP ROUTING OF TELEMETRY DATA IN DRONE SWARMS

      Rohrer, Justin P.; Pospischil, Alexis; Department of Computer Science, Naval Postgraduate School (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In 2015, a group of Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) professors and students set the record for largest fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm flown at one time. The swarm had 50 vehicles flying simultaneously and successfully demonstrated distributed decision-making with all processing occurring on swarm vehicles rather than a centralized control station. Much of the decision-making is based on telemetry data that is continuously streamed from all the nodes. At that time all telemetry data was broadcast in a single-hop radio environment using 802.11 in AdHoc mode. In the future, drone swarm distribution and mobility patterns will necessitate multi-hop communications for this telemetry data. This paper models the network currently used by the NPS drone swarm as well as potential future topologies and evaluates candidate multihop routing protocols for this application.
    • ASSPA. ASSISTANT FOR FLIGHT TEST EXECUTION

      Rubio, Pedro; Lopez, Rodrigo; Airbus D&S (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The objective of this paper is to describe the tools that have been developed to ease the Flight Test Engineers (FTE) the execution of Flight Test and ensure the highest quality of the final product. This first product is mainly devoted to Production Flight Test (PATM), where the profile and the tests to be performed are almost the same for all flights. As during the PATM there are many checks to do and many data to gather, the idea was to execute in an automatic way as many test points as could be possible. To cope with this requirement we have to develop an Automatic Flight Phase Detection in order to start some applications in the FTE Computer without any human intervention. So, we need a smart assistant to predict the following test points that will be executed. In addition of the previous point, it was also needed to send the results of the data gathering and calculation to a “Digital Flight Test Card” to avoid the use of paper. With both aids, Automatic Flight Phase Detection and Digital Flight Test Card, the efficiency of the execution of tests has been highly improved.
    • USING MLC FLASH TO REDUCE SYSTEM COST IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Storage devices based on Multi-Level Cell (MLC) NAND flash can be found in almost all computer systems except rugged, industrial systems; even though MLC is less expensive and more dense than devices based on standard Single-Level Cell (SLC) NAND flash, MLC’s lower write endurance and lower retention has led system designers to avoid using it. This avoidance is unnecessary in many applications which will never come close to the endurance limits. Furthermore, new processes are leading to storage devices with higher write endurance. System designers should review the specific use-model for their systems and can select MLC-based storage devices when warranted. The result is lower system costs without worry of data loss due to write endurance.
    • A DISTRIBUTED VIDEO ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Song, Jian; Beijing Zoweetech Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Camera has been used in telemetry system over decades now. Normally, the video signal outputted from cameras would be acquired by video module(s) located in general data acquisition equipment. In this paper, a distributed video acquisition system is presented. It is a synchronous acquisition system consisted of a record and control unit and several video acquisition units. The synchronous shutter control for cameras and data flow synchronous transportation inside the system is added as well. The accuracy of timing and synchronous acquisition of the system is less than 50ns.
    • LTE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR COVERAGE AND DOPPLER REDUCTION IN RANGE TELEMETRY

      Kogiantis, Achilles; Rege, Kiran; Triolo, Anthony A.; Vencore Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      A novel approach employing 4G LTE Cellular Technology for Test Range Telemetry is presented. Providing aeronautical mobile telemetry using commercial off the shelf (COTS) cellular equipment poses many challenges, including: Three-dimensional (3D) coverage, need for uninterrupted high data throughputs, and very high Doppler speeds of the Test Articles (TA). Each of these requirements is difficult to meet with a standard cellular approach. We present a novel architecture that provides 3D coverage over the span of a test range, allowing the TA to establish a radio link with base stations that have a manageable Doppler due to the reduced projected TA speed on the radio link line. Preliminary results illustrate that a variety of flight plans can be accommodated with commercial LTE technology by employing LTE’s mobility mechanisms and adding centralized control. The resulting network architecture and Radio Access Network topology allow very high throughputs to be delivered throughout the test range with a judicious placement of base stations.