• Modeling and Simulation with Numbers!

      Guadiana, Juan; Baird, James; Tackill, Curtiss; Telemetronics Inc.; Blue Origin LLC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Moore's Law predicts the trends in our technology very well and we have witnessed the relentless march of software solutions deep into the hardware domain. Link models are normally in the realm of scientific software packages like Mathematica, MatLab or Satellite Tool Kit. Here we apply Frii's Transmission equation to perform a link model with a common application like Numbers or Excel. Modeling a single link is easy and a staring antenna Array is modeled as many single links. Creating the model does require planning just as creating any software application does, but the "coding" is fairly straight forward. The results are stunning graphical plots. A simulation is created from the same spread sheet depicts the array's Graphics User Interface (GUI). Very low cost, an excellent way for students to learn to model and simulate their systems. The work serves as a good prototype to experiment with before investing in expensive software or software development. Spreadsheets do break easily so plan to back up your sheets periodically.

      Rohrer, Justin P.; Pospischil, Alexis; Department of Computer Science, Naval Postgraduate School (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In 2015, a group of Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) professors and students set the record for largest fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm flown at one time. The swarm had 50 vehicles flying simultaneously and successfully demonstrated distributed decision-making with all processing occurring on swarm vehicles rather than a centralized control station. Much of the decision-making is based on telemetry data that is continuously streamed from all the nodes. At that time all telemetry data was broadcast in a single-hop radio environment using 802.11 in AdHoc mode. In the future, drone swarm distribution and mobility patterns will necessitate multi-hop communications for this telemetry data. This paper models the network currently used by the NPS drone swarm as well as potential future topologies and evaluates candidate multihop routing protocols for this application.

      Landgren, David W.; Dykes, Daniel J.P.; Allen, Kenneth W.; Advanced Concepts Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In this work, a planar phased array antenna was engineered with ultra-wideband (UWB) performance that covers portions of the L-, S-, and C-bands. The unit cell design contains a driven layer that is directly connected to a single coaxial feed and a parasitic layer located above the driven layer separated by free space. This design does not require a balun or any vias between the antenna ground plane and the driven layer, resulting in a simple antenna stack-up consisting of only planar layers, aside from the feed structure. As a consequence, the complexity, and potentially sensitivity to mechanical tolerances, is reduced. The simulated results of this unbalanced phased array are discussed and experimentally validated.

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent; UCSB, Dept Electrical & Comp. Eng. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper is the summary of a sequence of research tasks in the area of 3D bearing-angle estimation for UUV homing and docking exercises. The main focus is to simplify the concept as well as computation efficiency of the homing and docking tasks, by elevating the estimation modality from the conventional twin-receiver configuration to the 2D circular arrays. The objective is to utilize the multi-element receiver array for the entire navigation procedure, including bearing-angle estimation, optimal path planning, and high-precision docking.

      Cuevas, Vannesa; Diehl, Michael; Wilcox, Tab; Air Combat Systems Directorate, U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Last year, the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) faced a short suspense requirement to instrument an Apache's Ethernet bus. YPG was able to implement an effective method to satisfy this requirement; however, more capable and effective methodologies could not be developed and utilized due to time constraints. While continuing to support ongoing Apache testing, YPG is working to implement more efficient methods to capture and utilize the Ethernet data. This paper will discuss YPG’s initial implementation and the follow-on efforts being pursued.
    • PUREmodules: An IoT Development Method to Simplify Prototype Hardware

      Afzal, Furqaan; Rodriguez, Michael; Lee, Kyle; Ono, Sashi; Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent; Pure Engineering; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Conventional hardware development of sensor systems can be complex and tedious due to the time-consuming procedures of prototyping the physical hardware and the lack of firmware examples for testing and evaluation. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a new development process in the format of one single core module with a standardized interface so that a large number of sensors may be connected easily in an ad-hoc manner. The sensors can then be programmed with standard development tools and processes. The concept of the design modules enables effective and rapid prototyping of hardware implementations without prior knowledge of the low-level details of the hardware components. With this capability, sensors can be connected to a core module for rapid development of low-cost high-performance devices.

      Huang, Jie; Kosbar, Kurt; White, Julia; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Optic fiber sensors are employed in a variety of applications for the remote measurement of various parameters such as strain, pressure, or temperature. These sensors offer an array of benefits as well including light weight, compactness, and high resolution. In particular, Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) maintain these benefits and can also be made to withstand extremely high temperatures. This advantage of the FPI allows it to be used in harsh environments where many other tools for parameter measurement could not survive. An FPI strain sensor is constructed and tested which has the capabilities to be used at high temperatures of over 1000°C for applications in gas turbine engine testing. This paper discusses the need for high temperature strain sensors in engine testing and this sensor’s capabilities in this application.

      Moodie, Myron L.; Newton, Todd A.; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      RCC 106 Chapter 10 has established the standard for interoperable flight test recording on the DOD ranges. The growth of network and distributed technologies in flight test instrumentation (FTI) has led to the recent adoption of Chapters 21 through 28 to provide standards for implementing interoperable telemetry networks. However, the new standards have led to confusion and concern that the investment in Chapter 10 recorders will be lost. This paper first clarifies the complementary nature of the RCC 106 chapters and proposes one possible path to extending the current capability of a Chapter 10 recorder with telemetry network capability while minimizing impact to existing recording and support systems.

      Kosbar, Kurt; Kitchen, Seth; Klinger, Daniel; Telemetry Learning Center Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper describes a telemetry system for a high-powered rocket entered in the Intercollegiate Rocket Engineering Competition hosted by the Experimental Sounding Rocket Association. On-board the rocket GPS coordinates,acceleration, magnetic field and lux readings are collected,along with other data. The data is sent between internal systems using commercial Internet-of-Things boards that utilize IEEE 802.11 wireless protocols. The aggregated data is transmitted to a ground station through a monopole transmitting antenna and custom designed helical receiving antenna such that in the event of a crash, data is not lost. The ground station data recovery is performed using a commercial XBee transceiver, before being displayed in real time for tracking and safety purposes,and stored for future data analysis. The target apogee is 9 km, so real time GPS data will be useful for both tracking and vehicle recovery operations.

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Hung, David; McKeever, Kennon; Ramirez, Ricardo; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Accurate image classification is one of the core challenges in computer vision. At the annual AUVSI SUAS competition, this challenge is faced in the form of ground target classification from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Additionally, due to the constraints imposed by the UAV platform, the system design must consider factors such as size, weight, and power consumption. To meet performance requirements while respecting such limitations, the system was broken into two subsystems: an onboard subsystem and a ground based subsystem. This design allows the onboard subsystem, comprised of a DSLR camera and single-board computer, to capture ground target images and perform rudimentary target detection and localization. For further processing and to ultimately classify the targets in each image, data packets are sent to the ground-based subsystem via a 5 GHz wireless link. Convolutional networks are utilized on the ground to achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in classification.

      Bose, Tamal; Xin, Hao; Teku, Noel; Gulati, Gitansh; Asadi, Hamed; Vanhoy, Garrett; Abdelrahman, Ahmed H.; Morris, Kevin; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn; University of Colorado Boulder, Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering Dept (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      High frequency (HF) communications, ranging from 3 to 30 MHz, are utilized by many radio enthusiasts to conduct transmissions with users across the globe. These communications depend on successfully reflecting signals off of the ionosphere. However, numerous factors (i.e. power level, coding, modulation, etc.), combined with the instability of the ionosphere, can make transmissions over this frequency band unreliable. Thus, an HF communication system design is proposed to offer more robust long range HF communications. The system has a cognitive engine that can determine transmission parameters (i.e. coding, modulation, etc.) capable of providing a high throughput and low bit error rate in various environments. The system also has a low-profile helical antenna that, combined with a matching circuit, is capable of receiving signals over different subsets of the HF band. These two components constitute a system capable of effectively transmitting and receiving signals over the HF band.

      Nassr, Husam; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper investigates the effect of parameter selection for the decision feedback equalization (DFE) on communication performance through a dispersive underwater acoustic wireless channel (UAWC). A DFE based on minimum mean-square error (MMSE-DFE) criterion has been employed in the implementation for evaluation purposes. The output from the MMSE-DFE is input to the decoder to estimate the transmitted bit sequence. The main goal of this experimental simulation is to determine the best selection, such that the reduction in the computational overload is achieved without altering the performance of the system, where the computational complexity can be reduced by selecting an equalizer with a proper length. The system performance is tested for BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM modulation and a simulation for the system is carried out for Proakis channel A and real underwater wireless acoustic channel estimated during SPACE08 measurements to verify the selection.
    • Spectrum Access R&D (SARD) Program: An Update on the Conformal C-Band/Multi-band Antenna Project

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Fielder, Russell; Apalboym, Maxim; Chavez, Michael (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      In September 2016, work was initiated on the subprojects which comprise the Conformal C-Band/Multiband Antenna project: SARD #1: Broadband Conformal C-Band Missile Wraparound Antennas; SARD #2: Beam Switching Array Antennas; SARD #3: Multiband Conformal Antennas for Aircraft Applications; SARD #4: High Altitude Coronal Efforts on Antenna Performance; and SARD #5: Small, Medium Gain Multiband Receive Antennas. A brief status of each of them will be discussed and detail the technology areas being developed by each.

      Kogiantis, Achilles; Rege, Kiran; Triolo, Anthony A.; Vencore Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      A novel approach employing 4G LTE Cellular Technology for Test Range Telemetry is presented. Providing aeronautical mobile telemetry using commercial off the shelf (COTS) cellular equipment poses many challenges, including: Three-dimensional (3D) coverage, need for uninterrupted high data throughputs, and very high Doppler speeds of the Test Articles (TA). Each of these requirements is difficult to meet with a standard cellular approach. We present a novel architecture that provides 3D coverage over the span of a test range, allowing the TA to establish a radio link with base stations that have a manageable Doppler due to the reduced projected TA speed on the radio link line. Preliminary results illustrate that a variety of flight plans can be accommodated with commercial LTE technology by employing LTE’s mobility mechanisms and adding centralized control. The resulting network architecture and Radio Access Network topology allow very high throughputs to be delivered throughout the test range with a judicious placement of base stations.

      Don, Michael; Ilg, Mark; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      The United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed a Pulse Code Modulated (PCM)/Binary Frequency Shift Key (BFSK) telemetry system using a low-cost commercial Software Defined Radio (SDR). Where as traditional radio systems are implemented in hardware,much of the functionality of SDR is defined in software. This gives them the flexibility to accommodate military telemetry standards as well as other specialized functions. After a summary of previous development, new telemetry advances are described, focusing on telemetry transmitter, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption, and layered protocol design. Many of these functions were proven in a field experiment at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ in March of 2017 where data was successfully encrypted, transmitted, decoded, and processed in real-time.

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Alam, Tasmeer; Morgan State University, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper focuses on the design of a simple Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) signaling structure for the Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR) prototype wireless radio communication system to meet the timing requirements of the iNET standard. Built for aeronautical telemetry, LDAR adapts its modulation and coding scheme based on the channel condition in real time. In this paper, a simple protocol for transmission of Command Message and Data Message between Ground Station and Test Article is discussed. This protocol includes all analysis for the continuous adaptation of modulation scheme and coding rate to maximize throughput while ensuring a minimum level of link quality. This project was a collaborative effort between Morgan State University and Georgia Tech Research Institute and is a continuation of our previously published work on LDAR.

      Rajagopal, Abhejit; Radzicki, Vincent; Chandrasekaran, Shivkumar; Lee, Hua; UCSB, Dept Electrical & Comp. Eng. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Traditional target detection pipelines involve two sequential steps: the formation of a range-profile or likely-image, and the classification of likely targets within that image. Although it has been shown that target tracking in the RaDAR image-domain can be unnecessarily noisy, with more accurate and efficient implementations involving a direct analysis of the measured wavefield, image formation remains a desirable output in many applications due to its highly descriptive and interpretable nature. In this paper, we outline a mechanism for formalizing and accelerating this procedure in application-specific use cases. Enabled by recent advances in deep learning, we present a pipeline for automatically selecting an “optimal” filtered back-projection model, forming a likelyimage, and performing target recognition and classification. The architecture allows practitioners to track and optimize the flow of information throughout the pipeline, enabling applications that utilize only intermediate outputs of the algorithm.
    • Graph Theoretic Modeling and Energy Analysis of Wireless Telemetry Networks

      Cetinkaya, Egemen K.; Kosbar, Kurt; Shatto, Tristan A.; Telemetry Learning Center Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Network science provides essential tools to model and analyze topology and structure of dynamic wireless telemetry networks. In this paper, we model wireless telemetry networks using three well-known graph models: Gilbert random graph, Erdos-Renyi random graph, and random geometric graph models. Next, we analyze the connectivity of synthetically generated topologies using graph energy, which is the sum of absolute values of eigenvalues. Our results indicate second-order curves for adjacency and Laplacian energies as the connectivity of synthetically generated networks improve. The normalized Laplacian energy decreases, converging to the theoretical lower bound as the connectivity reaches to a maximum.

      Rice, Michael; Hogstrom, Christopher; Nash, Chris; Ravert, Jeff; Saquib, Mohammad; Afran, Md. Shah; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; Perrins, Erik; Temple, Kip; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      This paper summarizes the analysis of bit error rate data captured during flight tests designed to compare data-aided equalizers with SOQPSK-TG to unequalized and currently available blind, adaptive equalizers with SOQPSK-TG. The number of bit errors,on a second-by-second basis, are analyzed. The results are different for each test point. Given the uncertain behavior of the preamble detector for the data-aided equalizer and the differing channel conditions between the data-aided equalizer channel and the conventional serial streaming telemetry channel, we are unable to draw any firm comparative conclusions.

      Bose, Tamal; Vanhoy, Garrett; Teku, Noel; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2017-10)
      Cognitive radio (CR) is a concept that imagines a radio (wireless transceiver) that contains an embedded intelligent agent that can adapt to its spectral environment. Using a software defined radio (SDR), a radio can detect the presence of other users in the spectrum and adapt accordingly, but it is important in many applications to discern between individual transmitters and this can be done using signal classification. The use of cyclostationary features have been shown to be robust to many common channel conditions. One such cyclostationary feature, the spectral correlation density(SCD),hasseenlimiteduseinsignalclassificationuntilnowbecauseitisacomputationally intensive process. This work demonstrates how feature selection techniques can be used to enable real-time classification. The proposed technique is validated using 8 common modulation formats that are generated and collected over the air.