Development and Validation of a Tool to Calculate an Exposure Score for All Pain Self-Management Strategies Used By Individuals with Chronic Pain
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
EmbargoRelease after 14-Dec-2018
AbstractObjectives: To develop a tool to calculate the exposure scores for all pain self-management strategies used by individuals with chronic pain, and to test the validity of the tool by assessing associations between exposure and pain outcomes using regression. Methods: Survey data of pharmacists’ pain self-management strategies were used to calculate the exposure score. One point was assigned for every: 100mg of morphine used (opioid medications); 25% of the maximum recommended dose used (non-opioid medications); and any use of another strategy. Points were summed to calculate each individual’s exposure. Regressions assessed associations between exposure and pain outcomes. Results: Data for 149 individuals with chronic pain were included in the study. Individuals with chronic pain used a mean of 12.7 (SD=4.7) strategies to manage their pain, and had a mean exposure score of 16.8 (SD=9.1). Exposure score was positively associated in the multivariate models with the self-reported pain outcomes: adverse events experienced due to pain; workdays lost in the last six months due to pain; and pain interference on relationships (p<0.05). Conclusions: This validity study showed positive associations between the exposure score calculated by our tool, and adverse events experienced due to pain, workdays lost in the last six months due to pain, and pain interference with relationships. The personalized exposure profile produced by the tool may assist patients and providers when determining the most appropriate pain self-management strategies to use.
Degree ProgramGraduate College