High Efficient Ultra-Thin Flat Optics Based on Dielectric Metasurfaces
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractMetasurfaces which emerged as two-dimensional counterparts of metamaterials, facilitate the realization of arbitrary phase distributions using large arrays with subwavelength and ultra-thin features. Even if metasurfaces are ultra-thin, they still effectively manipulate the phase, amplitude, and polarization of light in transmission or reflection mode. In contrast, conventional optical components are bulky, and they lose their functionality at sub-wavelength scales, which requires conceptually new types of nanoscale optical devices. On the other hand, as the optical systems shrink in size day by day, conventional bulky optical components will have tighter alignment and fabrication tolerances. Since metasurfaces can be fabricated lithographically, alignment can be done during lithographic fabrication, thus eliminating the need for post-fabrication alignments. In this work, various types of metasurface applications are thoroughly investigated for robust wavefront engineering with enhanced characteristics in terms of broad bandwidth, high efficiency and active tunability, while beneficial for application. Plasmonic metasurfaces are not compatible with the CMOS process flow, and, additionally their high absorption and ohmic loss is problematic in transmission based applications. Dielectric metasurfaces, however, offer a strong magnetic response at optical frequencies, and thus they can offer great opportunities for interacting not only with the electric component of a light field, but also with its magnetic component. They show great potential to enable practical device functionalities at optical frequencies, which motivates us to explore them one step further on wavefront engineering and imaging sensor platforms. Therefore, we proposed an efficient ultra-thin flat metalens at near-infrared regime constituted by silicon nanodisks which can support both electric and magnetic dipolar Mie-type resonances. These two dipole resonances can be overlapped at the same frequency by varying the geometric parameters of silicon nanodisks. Having two resonance mechanisms at the same frequency allows us to achieve full (0-2π) phase shift on the transmitted beam. To enable the miniaturization of pixel size for achieving high-resolution, planar, compact-size focal plane arrays (FPAs), we also present and explore the metasurface lens array-based FPAs. The investigated dielectric metasurface lens arrays achieved high focusing efficiency with superior optical crosstalk performance. We see a magnificent application prospect for metasurfaces in enhancing the fill factor and reducing the pixel size of FPAs and CCD, CMOS imaging sensors as well. Moreover, it is of paramount importance to design metasurfaces possessing tunable properties. Thus, we also propose a tunable beam steering device by combining phase manipulating metasurfaces concept and liquid crystals. Tunability feature is implemented by nematic liquid crystals infiltrated into nano holes in SiO2. Using electrically tunable nematic liquid crystals, dynamic beam steering is achieved
Degree ProgramGraduate College