Robust Intelligent Agents for Wireless Communications: Design and Development of Metacognitive Radio Engines
Metacognitive Radio Engine
Perturbation Tolerant Radio
Robust Cognitive Radio Engine
AdvisorMarefat, Michael M.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
EmbargoRelease after 5-Aug-2018
AbstractImproving the efficiency of spectrum access and utilization under the umbrella of cognitive radio (CR) is one of the most crucial research areas for nearly two decades. The results have been algorithms called cognitive radio engines which use machine learning (ML) to learn and adapt the communication's link based on the operating scenarios. While a number of algorithms for cognitive engine design have been identified, it is widely understood that significant room remains to grow the capabilities of the cognitive engines, and substantially better spectrum utilization and higher throughput can be achieved if cognitive engines are improved. This requires working through some difficult challenges and takes an innovative look at the problem. A tenet of the existing cognitive engine designs is that they are usually designed around one primary ML algorithm or framework. In this dissertation, we discover that it is entirely possible for an algorithm to perform better in one operating scenario (combination of channel conditions, available energy, and operational objectives such as max throughput, and max energy efficiency) while performing less effectively in other operating scenarios. This arises due to the unique behavior of an individual ML algorithm regardless of its operating conditions. Therefore, there is no individual algorithm or parameter sets that have superiority in performance over all other algorithms or parameter sets in all operating scenarios. Using the same algorithm at all times may present a performance that is acceptable, yet may not be the best possible performance under all operating scenarios we are faced with over time. Ideally, the system should be able to adapt its behavior by switching between various ML algorithms or adjusting the operating ML algorithm for the prevailing operating conditions and goal. In this dissertation, we introduce a novel architecture for cognitive radio engines, with the goal of better cognitive engines for improved link adaptation in order to enhance spectrum utilization. This architecture is capable of meta-reasoning and metacognition and the algorithms developed based on this architecture are called metacognitive engines (meta-CE). Meta-reasoning and metacognitive abilities provide for self-assessment, self-awareness, and inherent use and adaptation of multiple methods for link adaptation and utilization. In this work, we provide four different implementation instances of the proposed meta-CE architecture. First, a meta-CE which is equipped with a classification algorithm to find the most appropriate individual cognitive engine algorithm for each operating scenario. The meta-CE switches between the individual cognitive engine algorithms to decrease the training period of the learning algorithms and not only find the most optimal communication configuration in the fastest possible time but also provide the acceptable performance during its training period. Second, we provide different knowledge indicators for estimating the experience level of cognitive engine algorithms. We introduce a meta-CE equipped with these knowledge indicators extracted from metacognitive knowledge component. This meta-CE adjusts the exploration factors of learning algorithms to gain higher performance and decrease training time. The third implementation of meta-CE is based on the robust training algorithm (RoTA) which switches and adjusts the individual cognitive engine algorithms to guarantee a minimum performance level during the training phase. This meta-CE is also equipped with forgetting factor to deal with non-stationary channel scenarios. The last implementation of meta-CE enables the individual cognitive engine algorithms to handle delayed feedback scenarios. We analyze the impact of delayed feedback on cognitive radio engines' performances in two cases of constant and varying delay. Then we propose two meta-CEs to address the delayed feedback problem in cognitive engine algorithms. Our experimental results show that the meta-CE approach, when utilized for a CRS engine performed about 20 percent better (total throughput) than the second best performing algorithm, because of its ability to learn about its own learning and adaptation. In effect, the meta-CE is able to deliver about 70% more data than the CE with the fixed exploration rate in the 1000 decision steps. Moreover, the knowledge indicator (KI) autocorrelation plots show that the proposed KIs can predict the performance of the CEs as early as 100 time steps in advance. In non-stationary environments, the proposed RoTA based meta-CE guarantees the minimum required performance of a CRS while it’s searching for the optimal communication configurations. The RoTA based meta-CE delivers at least about 45% more data than the other algorithms in non-stationary scenarios when the channel conditions are often fluctuating. Furthermore, in delayed feedback scenarios, our results show that the proposed meta-CE algorithms are able to mitigate the adverse impact of delay in low latency scenarios and relieve the effects in high latency situations. The proposed algorithms show a minimum of 15% improvement in their performance compared to the other available delayed feedback strategies in literature. We also empirically tested the algorithms introduced in this dissertation and verified the results therein by designing an over the air (OTA) radio setup. For our experiments, we used GNU Radio and LiquidDSP as free software development toolkits that provide signal processing blocks to implement software-defined radios and signal-processing systems such as modulation, pulse-shaping, frame detection, equalization, and others. We also used two USRP N200 with WBX daughterboards, one as a transmitter and the other as a receiver. In these experiments, we monitored the packet success rate (PSR), throughput, and total data transferred as our key performance indicators (KPI). Then, we tested different proposed meta-CE algorithms in this dissertation to verify the productivity of the proposed algorithms in an OTA real-time radio setup. We showed that the experiments’ outputs support our simulations results as well.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Electrical & Computer Engineering
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Equatorial SurveyGralla, Megan B.; Marriage, Tobias A.; Addison, Graeme; Baker, Andrew J.; Bond, J. Richard; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-04-21)We present a catalog of 510 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs, primarily blazars) and 287 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at significance in frequency bands centered on 148 GHz (2 mm), 218 GHz (1.4 mm), and 277 GHz (1.1 mm), from a 480 deg(2) strip centered at R.A. 00(h) on the celestial equator with additional 360 deg(2) shallower auxiliary fields at other longitudes. The combination of the deepest available 218 GHz wide-field imaging, our 277 GHz data, and multiband filtering results in the most sensitive wide-field millimeter-wave DSFG selection to date, with rms noise level referenced to 218 GHz reaching below 2 mJy. We have developed new techniques to remove Galactic contamination (including evidence for CO (2-1) line emission) from the extragalactic catalog, yielding a catalog of 321 Galactic sources in addition to the extragalactic catalog. We employ a new flux debiasing method that accounts for the heterogeneous sample selection in the presence of Galactic cuts. We present the spectral properties and source counts of the AGNs and DSFGs. The DSFG spectra depart from the Rayleigh-Jeans regime of an optically thin modified blackbody between 218 and 277 GHz, consistent with optically thick emission or an additional cold dust component. For AGNs with 148 and 218 GHz flux density >50 mJy, we estimate the interyear rms fractional deviation in flux density due to source variability to be 40% with a 0.98 interband correlation coefficient. We provide source counts for AGNs in the range of 8-2870 mJy and for DSFGs in the range of 8-90 mJy. Our DSFG counts probe both the brighter, lensed population and the fainter, unlensed population. At 277 GHz we report the first measurements of source counts at these flux densities, finding an excess above most model count predictions. Finally, we present 30 of the brightest DSFGs that were selected for multifrequency study as candidate high-z lensed systems.
Efficient Radio Resource Management and Routing Mechanisms for Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksKrunz, Marwan; Shu, Tao; Krunz, Marwan; Krunz, Marwan; Ramasubramanian, Srinivasan; Lazos, Loukas (The University of Arizona., 2010)Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) promises to significantly improve the utilization of the RF spectrum. Under OSA, an unlicensed secondary user (SU) is allowed to detect and access under-utilized portions of the licensed spectrum, provided that such operation does not interfere with the communication of licensed primary users (PUs). Cognitive radio (CR) is a key enabling technology of OSA. In this dissertation, we propose several radio resource management and routing mechanisms that optimize the discovery and utilization of spectrum opportunities in a cognitive radio network (CRN). First, we propose a sequential channel sensing and probing mechanism that enables a resource-constrained SU to efficiently identify the optimal transmission opportunity from a pool of potentially usable channels. This mechanism maximizes the SUs expected throughput by accounting for the tradeoff between the reward and overhead of scanning additional channels. The optimal channel sensing and probing process is modeled as a maximum-rate-of-return problem in optimal stopping theory. Operational parameters, such as sensing and probing times, are optimized by exploiting the problem's special structure. Second, we study the problem of coordinated spectrum access in CRNs to maximize the CRNs throughput. By exploiting the geographic relationship between an SU and its surrounding PUs, we propose the novel concept of microscopic spectrum opportunity, in which active SUs and PUs are allowed to operate in the same region, subject to power constraints. Under this framework, we formulate the coordinated channel access problem as a joint power/rate control and channel assignment optimization problem. Centralized and distributed approximate algorithms are proposed to solve this problem efficiently. Compared with its macroscopic counterpart, we show that the microscopic-spectrum-opportunity framework offers significant throughput gains. Finally, at the network layer, we study the problem of truthful least-priced-path (LPP) routing for profit-driven CRNs. We design a route selection and pricing mechanism that guarantees truthful spectrum cost reporting from profit-driven SUs and that finds the cheapest route for end users. The problem is investigated with and without capacity constraints at individual nodes. In both cases, polynomial-time algorithms are developed to solve the LPP problem. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed mechanisms.