A Re-Os Geochronology and Multi Stable Isotope (C, N, S, Sr, Pb) Systematics of Source Rocks and Crude Oils from the Sonda de Campeche Petroleum System, Mexico
AuthorSalgado Souto, Sergio Adrian
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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EmbargoRelease after 4-Jan-2023
AbstractIn this work, I present a multi-isotopic study (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, strontium and lead) and Re-Os geochronology in rocks and crude oils of the Sonda de Campeche Petroleum System (SCPS). Since crude oils are complicated chemical systems easily disturbed, the Re-Os isotopic system could be affected if secondary processes perturb crude oils. Therefore, the multi stable isotopic study allows the identification of the presence and grade of these secondary processes in crude oils. The δ13C values of crude oils from the SCPS distinguish between: 1) crude oils with the fingerprint of source rocks of hydrocarbons (-28.3 to -26.7 ‰), and 2) crude oils with the fingerprint of the reservoir rocks (-25.5 to -24.9 ‰). Similarly, the δ15N values reveal that crude oils, during migration or trapping processes mimic the isotopic composition of the reservoir rocks of the Ek-Balam Formation. Furthermore, the δ34S values of crude oils from the SCPS (-8.0 to -2.5 ‰) show an absence of a thermal sulfate reduction (TSR) signature, which likely means that the use of Re-Os systematics in crude oils and rocks in the SCPS is appropriate. Strontium and lead measurements show crude oils have an isotopic composition different from rocks from the Edzna Formation but similar to rocks of the Akimpech and Ek-Balam formations, indicating that crude oils received Sr and Pb from the trapping rocks during migration or trapping processes, producing a isotopic mixing trend with rocks of these formations. Specifically, the lead isotope composition allows the identification of a source of lead never recorded before, the Guichicovi Complex. The isotopic data suggest that this Grenville Complex has been feeding with detrital material to the sedimentary rocks from Bacab, Ek-Balam and Akimpech formations in the SCPS, and in consequence contributing to the final isotopic composition of crude oils as well. Re-Os geochronology of rocks from the Edzna and Akimpech formations (152 ± 4 Ma; and 158.6 ± 5.5 Ma, respectively) provides precise ages of deposition that coincide with the ages proposed in previous studies based on the fossil record. Re-Os geochronology in crude oils yield ages with low uncertainty and moderate MSWD values, reflecting a rapid formation and migration process that occurred during evolution of the SCPS. The age of crude oils (28.3 ± 5.5 Ma) broadly agrees with petroleum generation models proposed by PEMEX.
Degree ProgramGraduate College