Evaluation of Well Designs to Improve Access to Safe and Clean Water in Rural Tanzania
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Hlth Promot Sci Dept, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth
Univ Arizona, Biomed Engn, Elect & Comp Engn
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CitationEvaluation of Well Designs to Improve Access to Safe and Clean Water in Rural Tanzania 2018, 15 (1):64 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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AbstractThe objective of this study was to examine three well designs: drilled wells (20-30 m deep), closed dug wells (>5 m deep), and hand-dug open wells (<5 m deep), to determine the water quality for improving access to safe and clean water in rural communities. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and turbidity, were used to assess the water quality of 97 wells. Additionally, the study looked at the microflora diversity of the water, focusing on potential pathogens using outgrowth, PCR, and genome sequencing for 10 wells. Concentrations of TC for the open dug wells (4 x 10(4) CFU/100 mL) were higher than the drilled (2 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL) and closed dug wells (3 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL). E. coli concentration for drilled and closed dug wells was <22 MPN (most probable number)/100 mL, but higher for open wells (>154 MPN/100 mL). The drilled well turbidity (11 NTU) was within the standard deviation of the closed well (28 NTU) compared to open dug wells (49 NTU). Drilled and closed wells had similar microbial diversity. There were no significant differences between drilled and closed dug wells. The covering and lining of hand-dug wells should be considered as an alternative to improve access to safe and clean water in rural communities.
NoteOpen access journal.
UA Open Access Publishing Fund.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNational Science Foundation [OISE-0854050]