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dc.contributor.authorKilungo, Aminataen
dc.contributor.authorPowers, Lindaen
dc.contributor.authorArnold, Nathanen
dc.contributor.authorWhelan, Kellien
dc.contributor.authorPaterson, Kurten
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Daleen
dc.date.accessioned2018-03-26T16:30:00Z
dc.date.available2018-03-26T16:30:00Z
dc.date.issued2018-01-04
dc.identifier.citationEvaluation of Well Designs to Improve Access to Safe and Clean Water in Rural Tanzania 2018, 15 (1):64 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthen
dc.identifier.issn1660-4601
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ijerph15010064
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/627122
dc.description.abstractThe objective of this study was to examine three well designs: drilled wells (20-30 m deep), closed dug wells (>5 m deep), and hand-dug open wells (<5 m deep), to determine the water quality for improving access to safe and clean water in rural communities. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and turbidity, were used to assess the water quality of 97 wells. Additionally, the study looked at the microflora diversity of the water, focusing on potential pathogens using outgrowth, PCR, and genome sequencing for 10 wells. Concentrations of TC for the open dug wells (4 x 10(4) CFU/100 mL) were higher than the drilled (2 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL) and closed dug wells (3 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL). E. coli concentration for drilled and closed dug wells was <22 MPN (most probable number)/100 mL, but higher for open wells (>154 MPN/100 mL). The drilled well turbidity (11 NTU) was within the standard deviation of the closed well (28 NTU) compared to open dug wells (49 NTU). Drilled and closed wells had similar microbial diversity. There were no significant differences between drilled and closed dug wells. The covering and lining of hand-dug wells should be considered as an alternative to improve access to safe and clean water in rural communities.
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation [OISE-0854050]en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPI AGen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/1/64en
dc.rights© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.en
dc.subjectboreholeen
dc.subjectcoliformen
dc.subjectEscherichia colien
dc.subjectgroundwateren
dc.subjectIfakaraen
dc.subjectwater qualityen
dc.subjectwell designen
dc.subjectwell depthen
dc.subjectwell comparisonen
dc.subjectSub-Saharan Africaen
dc.subjectTanzaniaen
dc.titleEvaluation of Well Designs to Improve Access to Safe and Clean Water in Rural Tanzaniaen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Hlth Promot Sci Dept, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlthen
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Biomed Engn, Elect & Comp Engnen
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Healthen
dc.description.noteOpen access journal.en
dc.description.noteUA Open Access Publishing Fund.
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-13T04:07:06Z
html.description.abstractThe objective of this study was to examine three well designs: drilled wells (20-30 m deep), closed dug wells (>5 m deep), and hand-dug open wells (<5 m deep), to determine the water quality for improving access to safe and clean water in rural communities. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and turbidity, were used to assess the water quality of 97 wells. Additionally, the study looked at the microflora diversity of the water, focusing on potential pathogens using outgrowth, PCR, and genome sequencing for 10 wells. Concentrations of TC for the open dug wells (4 x 10(4) CFU/100 mL) were higher than the drilled (2 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL) and closed dug wells (3 x 10(3) CFU/100 mL). E. coli concentration for drilled and closed dug wells was <22 MPN (most probable number)/100 mL, but higher for open wells (>154 MPN/100 mL). The drilled well turbidity (11 NTU) was within the standard deviation of the closed well (28 NTU) compared to open dug wells (49 NTU). Drilled and closed wells had similar microbial diversity. There were no significant differences between drilled and closed dug wells. The covering and lining of hand-dug wells should be considered as an alternative to improve access to safe and clean water in rural communities.


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