Exoplanet Classification and Yield Estimates for Direct Imaging Missions
AuthorKopparapu, Ravi Kumar
Batalha, Natalie M.
Mulders, Gijs D.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab
Keywordsplanets and satellites: atmospheres
planets and satellites: gaseous planets
planets and satellites: terrestrial planets
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationRavi Kumar Kopparapu et al 2018 ApJ 856 122
Rights© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Collection InformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
AbstractFuture NASA concept missions that are currently under study, like the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) and the Large Ultra-violet Optical Infra Red Surveyor, could discover a large diversity of exoplanets. We propose here a classification scheme that distinguishes exoplanets into different categories based on their size and incident stellar flux, for the purpose of providing the expected number of exoplanets observed (yield) with direct imaging missions. The boundaries of this classification can be computed using the known chemical behavior of gases and condensates at different pressures and temperatures in a planetary atmosphere. In this study, we initially focus on condensation curves for sphalerite ZnS, H2O, CO2, and CH4. The order in which these species condense in a planetary atmosphere define the boundaries between different classes of planets. Broadly, the planets are divided into rocky planets (0.5-1.0 R-circle plus), super-Earths (1.0-1.75 R-circle plus), sub-Neptunes (1.75-3.5 R-circle plus), sub-Jovians (3.5-6.0 R-circle plus), and Jovians (6-14.3 R-circle plus) based on their planet sizes, and "hot," "warm," and "cold" based on the incident stellar flux. We then calculate planet occurrence rates within these boundaries for different kinds of exoplanets, eta(planet), using the community coordinated results of NASA's Exoplanet Program Analysis Group's Science Analysis Group-13 (SAG-13). These occurrence rate estimates are in turn used to estimate the expected exoplanet yields for direct imaging missions of different telescope diameters.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory lead team - NASA [NNH05ZDA001C]; GSFC Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration (SEEC) - NASA Planetary Science Divisions Internal Scientist Funding Model
CollectionsUA Faculty Publications
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Precise radial velocities of giant starsOrtiz, Mauricio; Reffert, Sabine; Trifonov, Trifon; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Mitchell, David S.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Buenzli, Esther; Zimmerman, Neil; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Skemer, Andy; Defrère, Denis; Lee, Man Hoi; Fischer, Debra A.; Hinz, Philip M.; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2016-10-28)Context. For over 12 yr, we have carried out a precise radial velocity (RV) survey of a sample of 373 G- and K-giant stars using the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory. There are, among others, a number of multiple planetary systems in our sample as well as several planetary candidates in stellar binaries. Aims. We aim at detecting and characterizing substellar and stellar companions to the giant star HD 59686 A (HR 2877, HIP 36616). Methods. We obtained high-precision RV measurements of the star HD 59686 A. By fitting a Keplerian model to the periodic changes in the RVs, we can assess the nature of companions in the system. To distinguish between RV variations that are due to non-radial pulsation or stellar spots, we used infrared RVs taken with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Additionally, to characterize the system in more detail, we obtained high-resolution images with LMIRCam at the Large Binocular Telescope. Results. We report the probable discovery of a giant planet with a mass of m(p) sin i = 6.92(-0.24)(+0.18) M-Jup orbiting at a(p) = 1.0860(-0.0007)(+0.0006) aufrom the giant star HD 59686 A. In addition to the planetary signal, we discovered an eccentric (e(B) = 0.729(-0.003)(+0.004)) binary companionwith a mass of m(B) sin i = 0.5296(-0.0008)(+0.0011) M-circle dot orbiting at a close separation from the giant primary with a semi-major axis of a(B) = 13.56(-0.14)(+0.18) au. Conclusions. The existence of the planet HD 59686 Ab in a tight eccentric binary system severely challenges standard giant planet formation theories and requires substantial improvements to such theories in tight binaries. Otherwise, alternative planet formation scenarios such as second-generation planets or dynamical interactions in an early phase of the system's lifetime need to be seriously considered to better understand the origin of this enigmatic planet.
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