Adenosine Production by Biomaterial‐Supported Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Reduces the Innate Inflammatory Response in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
AuthorShin, Eric Y.
García, Andrés J.
Levit, Rebecca D.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Otolaryngol, Tucson, AZ USA
ischemia reperfusion injury
mesenchymal stem cell
MetadataShow full item record
CitationShin, E. Y., Wang, L., Zemskova, M., Deppen, J., Xu, K., Strobel, F., . . . Levit, R. D. (2018). Adenosine Production by Biomaterial‐Supported Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Reduces the Innate Inflammatory Response in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(2). doi:10.1161/jaha.117.006949
Rights© 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License.
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AbstractBackgroundDuring myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, there is extensive release of immunogenic metabolites that activate cells of the innate immune system. These include ATP and AMP, which upregulate chemotaxis, migration, and effector function of early infiltrating inflammatory cells. These cells subsequently drive further tissue devitalization. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a potential treatment modality for MI/R because of their powerful anti-inflammatory capabilities; however, the manner in which they regulate the acute inflammatory milieu requires further elucidation. CD73, an ecto-5-nucleotidase, may be critical in regulating inflammation by converting pro-inflammatory AMP to anti-inflammatory adenosine. We hypothesized that MSC-mediated conversion of AMP into adenosine reduces inflammation in early MI/R, favoring a micro-environment that attenuates excessive innate immune cell activation and facilitates earlier cardiac recovery. Methods and ResultsAdult rats were subjected to 30minutes of MI/R injury. MSCs were encapsulated within a hydrogel vehicle and implanted onto the myocardium. A subset of MSCs were pretreated with the CD73 inhibitor, ,-methylene adenosine diphosphate, before implantation. Using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we found that MSCs increase myocardial adenosine availability following injury via CD73 activity. MSCs also reduce innate immune cell infiltration as measured by flow cytometry, and hydrogen peroxide formation as measured by Amplex Red assay. These effects were dependent on MSC-mediated CD73 activity. Finally, through echocardiography we found that CD73 activity on MSCs was critical to optimal protection of cardiac function following MI/R injury. ConclusionsMSC-mediated conversion of AMP to adenosine by CD73 exerts a powerful anti-inflammatory effect critical for cardiac recovery following MI/R injury.
NoteOpen Access Journal; Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsAmerican Heart Association Scientist Development Grant [14SDG18530001]; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the NIH [T32HL007745]