An Empirical Exploration of Countermeasures in HCI-Based Deception Research
AuthorByrd, Michael David
Psycho-Physiological Deception Detection
Attentional Control Theory
Signal Detection Theory
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThis paper addresses three objectives: first, the extent of the theoretical understanding of countermeasures that is present in the deception detection literature to date was mapped out by conducting a literature review of countermeasures related work in the deception detection discipline. Second, after evaluating and analyzing this literature, Signal Detection Theory (SDT) was leveraged to generate an enhanced and extended theory-based framework for countermeasures. Third, an experiment was designed and conducted to explore the implications of this theory-based framework in the context of an HCI-based deception detection system based on tracking mouse movements and Attentional Control Theory (ACT) in an empirical experiment. The experiment was designed to learn more about what happens when users are aware they are being monitored and identify potential ways to mitigate any such countermeasures they may employ. In the experiment, participants were able to decide to perform and unsanctioned malicious act. In addition, we were able to definitively establish the ground truth about their behavior without imposing monitoring that was too overly invasive to the point of discouraging them from performing the malicious act. Mouse tracking was then used to attempt to detect who chose to perform the act, in a manner similar to how such a system would be deployed in practice. We manipulated the level of user awareness of the tracking and trained the users in strategies that can function as countermeasures to detection. Our analysis let us see how effective the system is at the varying levels of awareness and explore explanations and data analysis techniques to detect and mitigate the countermeasures. Results are discussed and considerations for future research are presented.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Management Information Systems
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Warning and Deception: Chemical, Behavioral, and Phylogenetic Studies of Aposematic Coloration and MimicryPrudic, Kathleen L. (The University of Arizona., 2007)The study of aposematic coloration and mimicry has a long and distinguished history, and has stimulated scientific inquiry in areas as diverse as chemistry, evolution, ecology, and behavior. Yet, many questions regarding signal function and ecological dynamics remain unknown. This dissertation attempts to address some of these questions about how a visual warning signal functions and how the environment changes its efficacy. First, I evaluated the role of luminance contrast in aposematic signaling using milkweed bugs as model prey and Chinese mantids as model predators. Predators learned to avoid unpalatable prey sooner and remembered to avoid unpalatable prey for longer when the prey had higher luminance contrast with the background. These results help define what makes a visual signal conspicuous and designate the importance of high luminance contrast in the efficacy of a warning color signal. Another important characteristic of warning coloration is the reason for the advertisement. I was able to identify and quantify the toxic compounds in both the host plant and the viceroy butterfly, a putative aposematic insect. These results provide a chemical mechanism for previous research that demonstrated that the viceroy was unpalatable to avian predators. Next, I was able to test the role of geographic variation in host plant and viceroy chemical defense and how that variation compared with the local abundance of a mimicry co-model of the viceroy, the queen butterfly. The results indicated the viceroy was more chemically defended and more unpalatable in locations where the queen was at low abundances. This result suggests that mimicry evolves in a geographic mosaic of co-evolution. Finally, I used molecular phylogenetic approaches to reconstruct and test the evolution of mimicry in the North American admiral butterflies (Limenitis: Nymphalidae). One species, L. arthemis, evolved the black, pipevine swallowtail mimetic form but later reverted to the white-banded ancestral form. This character reversion is strongly correlated with the geographic absence of the model species and its host plant, not the mimics host plant distribution. These results support the idea that loss of model in a geographic area is not an evolutionary stopping point for a Batesian mimic.
Little Machiavellians: Deception in Early ChildhoodParry, Melinda Ann (The University of Arizona., 2006)The analyses in this dissertation were designed to identify 1) whether there is an age effect among three-, four-, and five-year-old preschool children for false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability, 2) whether there is a gender effect among preschool children for false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability, 3) whether there is a relationship between false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability in preschool children, and 4) whether there is a relationship between peer acceptance and false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability among preschool children. Participants were 78 (34 male, 44 female) preschool children of mixed ethnicity who were between three to five years of age. All subjects completed four tasks that assessed false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, deception detection ability, and peer acceptance. Results from the four-way repeated measures mixed-model analysis of variance (2 Gender x 3 Age x 2 False-Belief Understanding x 2 Deception) suggest that there is a task effect, age effect, gender effect, and false-belief understanding effect for deception among preschool children. Children received significantly higher scores on the deception detection ability task than they did on the deceptive ability task. This indicates that young children find deception detection to be easier than deceptive ability. In addition, this also provides evidence that deceptive ability and that deception detection are two separate constructs. This is further supported by the principal components analysis, which extracted two separate components for deception intelligence. In addition, three-year-old children perform significantly lower than four- and five-year-old children on deception tasks. However, there is not a significant difference between the performances of four- and five-year-old children on deception tasks. This supports previous research that four years of age appears to be the critical age for the emergence of Machiavellian Intelligence (Peskin, 1992; Peterson, 2003). Moreover, males perform significantly better on deception tasks than females. Furthermore, there is a significant positive correlation between deception detection ability and peer acceptance. Children who obtain higher deception detection ability scores are ranked as being more liked by their peers.