An Empirical Exploration of Countermeasures in HCI-Based Deception Research
AuthorByrd, Michael David
Psycho-Physiological Deception Detection
Attentional Control Theory
Signal Detection Theory
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThis paper addresses three objectives: first, the extent of the theoretical understanding of countermeasures that is present in the deception detection literature to date was mapped out by conducting a literature review of countermeasures related work in the deception detection discipline. Second, after evaluating and analyzing this literature, Signal Detection Theory (SDT) was leveraged to generate an enhanced and extended theory-based framework for countermeasures. Third, an experiment was designed and conducted to explore the implications of this theory-based framework in the context of an HCI-based deception detection system based on tracking mouse movements and Attentional Control Theory (ACT) in an empirical experiment. The experiment was designed to learn more about what happens when users are aware they are being monitored and identify potential ways to mitigate any such countermeasures they may employ. In the experiment, participants were able to decide to perform and unsanctioned malicious act. In addition, we were able to definitively establish the ground truth about their behavior without imposing monitoring that was too overly invasive to the point of discouraging them from performing the malicious act. Mouse tracking was then used to attempt to detect who chose to perform the act, in a manner similar to how such a system would be deployed in practice. We manipulated the level of user awareness of the tracking and trained the users in strategies that can function as countermeasures to detection. Our analysis let us see how effective the system is at the varying levels of awareness and explore explanations and data analysis techniques to detect and mitigate the countermeasures. Results are discussed and considerations for future research are presented.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Management Information Systems
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
A cultural model of nonverbal deceptive communication: The independent and interdependent self-construals as predictors of deceptive communication motivation and nonverbal behaviors under deceptionKam, Karadeen Y. (The University of Arizona., 2003)Findings from a host of prior cross-cultural studies suggest that those of differing cultural orientations are likely to possess differing motivations for deceiving and truthtelling, and as a consequence, are likely to exhibit differing patterns of behavior when engaging in deceptive communication. Thus, this investigation examined: (a) the impact of cultural identity on one's motivation for deceptive communication, and (b) the impact of cultural orientation on overt manifestations of behavior. In addition, this study investigated the effects of culture and relational familiarity (i.e., strangers versus friends) on truth bias and deception detection accuracy. To test the proposed theoretical relationships, participants from two cultures (i.e., United States and Japan) were employed in an experimental study. Results of the current investigation revealed that degree of independence was the single best predictor of one's motivation to tell the truth and one's motivation to protect the self, whereas degree of interdependence was the best predictor of one's motivation to protect the other. In terms of deceivers'/truthtellers' perceptions of the self under deception, higher interdependence scores were found to be related to self-perceptions of less positive affect, less fluency, and less psychological involvement under truth conditions, but were associated with greater positive affect, greater fluency, and more psychological involvement under conditions of deception. When considering partner perceptions of truthtellers'/deceivers' behavior, higher degrees of independence were found to be associated with less positive affect under deception. When outside-observers viewed the behaviors of truthtellers/deceivers, higher degrees of independence were found to be associated with greater kinesic involvement and pleasantness, less nervousness, and greater vocal pleasantness and vocal relaxation under truth. Conversely, higher scores on independence were found to be related to less kinesic involvement, less pleasantness, greater nervousness, and less vocal pleasantness and vocal relaxation under conditions of deception. Finally, relationship type was not found to be a significant predictor of either accuracy or truth bias, although, higher degrees of interdependence were associated with lower detection accuracy and greater truth bias. The findings of the current investigation strongly suggest that behavioral differences indeed become manifest when research is conducted employing samples of varying cultural orientations.
DECISION SUPPORT FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TRUTH AND DECEPTION USING AUTOMATED ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND KIOSK-BASED EMBODIED CONVERSATIONAL AGENTSPatton, Mark (The University of Arizona., 2009)A pressing need exists for effective decision support systems to facilitate the rapid and accurate screening of large volumes of people. Millions of travelers transit through international borders and secure areas on an annual basis. Humans are exceptionally poor at detecting lying and deception and perform, on average, no better than chance. This research study focuses on the development, design and implementation of a Kiosk for Rapid Assessment of Deception (K-RAD) that integrates questioning with response processing and deception detection. An exploratory pilot study (N=68) and a primary study (N=225) were executed.The K-RAD was designed to have a three-dimensional figure, an "Embodied Conversational Agent" (ECA), deliver the questions through speech. This delivery mechanism was chosen because human subjects have been shown in the past to react emotionally to ECAs during conversational interactions, and emotional arousal is one of the cues to deception. Responses were analyzed for deception cues, focusing on kinesic, linguistic, and vocalic characteristics that can be captured for automated processing and which would be unique to this setting.The results show unique subject behaviors. Subjects exhibited minimal movement and had very little tendency to change posture. Some subjects (6%) referred to the ECA as an authority figure, using "sir" when responding. Subjects positioned themselves at varying distances from the ECA, with significant gender differences. Post-experiment surveys indicated a gender difference in overall stress, with female subjects reporting significantly higher levels, independent of the experimental condition.Postural-based logistic regression created significant classification models for the pilot (59.1% classification accuracy) and primary (57.2% & 62.8% classification accuracies) studies. Movement analysis had varying and conflicting results. A robust deception index with a 68.1% classification accuracy was achievable in the pilot study based on high-frequency movement and arm placement. Primary study deception indices were not significant.The results include a comprehensive set of observations and lessons learned regarding kiosk design, deception technologies, detection effectiveness, and future considerations to take into account when creating a next-generation K-RAD system. Many challenges remain, but the concept is functional, promising, and could revolutionize security screening and deception detection in a variety of settings.
Little Machiavellians: Deception in Early ChildhoodParry, Melinda Ann (The University of Arizona., 2006)The analyses in this dissertation were designed to identify 1) whether there is an age effect among three-, four-, and five-year-old preschool children for false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability, 2) whether there is a gender effect among preschool children for false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability, 3) whether there is a relationship between false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability in preschool children, and 4) whether there is a relationship between peer acceptance and false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, and deception detection ability among preschool children. Participants were 78 (34 male, 44 female) preschool children of mixed ethnicity who were between three to five years of age. All subjects completed four tasks that assessed false-belief understanding, deceptive ability, deception detection ability, and peer acceptance. Results from the four-way repeated measures mixed-model analysis of variance (2 Gender x 3 Age x 2 False-Belief Understanding x 2 Deception) suggest that there is a task effect, age effect, gender effect, and false-belief understanding effect for deception among preschool children. Children received significantly higher scores on the deception detection ability task than they did on the deceptive ability task. This indicates that young children find deception detection to be easier than deceptive ability. In addition, this also provides evidence that deceptive ability and that deception detection are two separate constructs. This is further supported by the principal components analysis, which extracted two separate components for deception intelligence. In addition, three-year-old children perform significantly lower than four- and five-year-old children on deception tasks. However, there is not a significant difference between the performances of four- and five-year-old children on deception tasks. This supports previous research that four years of age appears to be the critical age for the emergence of Machiavellian Intelligence (Peskin, 1992; Peterson, 2003). Moreover, males perform significantly better on deception tasks than females. Furthermore, there is a significant positive correlation between deception detection ability and peer acceptance. Children who obtain higher deception detection ability scores are ranked as being more liked by their peers.