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dc.contributor.authorRussell, Joellen L.
dc.contributor.authorKamenkovich, Igor
dc.contributor.authorBitz, Cecilia
dc.contributor.authorFerrari, Raffaele
dc.contributor.authorGille, Sarah T.
dc.contributor.authorGoodman, Paul J.
dc.contributor.authorHallberg, Robert
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Kenneth
dc.contributor.authorKhazmutdinova, Karina
dc.contributor.authorMarinov, Irina
dc.contributor.authorMazloff, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorRiser, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorSarmiento, Jorge L.
dc.contributor.authorSpeer, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorTalley, Lynne D.
dc.contributor.authorWanninkhof, Rik
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-24T21:00:19Z
dc.date.available2018-09-24T21:00:19Z
dc.date.issued2018-05
dc.identifier.citationRussell, J. L., Kamenkovich, I., Bitz, C., Ferrari, R., Gille, S. T., Goodman, P. J., et al. (2018). Metrics for the evaluation of the Southern Ocean in coupled climate models and earth system models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 3120‐3143. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013461en_US
dc.identifier.issn21699275
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/jgrc.v123.5
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/629146
dc.description.abstractThe Southern Ocean is central to the global climate and the global carbon cycle, and to the climate's response to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases, as it ventilates a large fraction of the global ocean volume. Global coupled climate models and earth system models, however, vary widely in their simulations of the Southern Ocean and its role in, and response to, the ongoing anthropogenic trend. Due to the region's complex water-mass structure and dynamics, Southern Ocean carbon and heat uptake depend on a combination of winds, eddies, mixing, buoyancy fluxes, and topography. Observationally based metrics are critical for discerning processes and mechanisms, and for validating and comparing climate and earth system models. New observations and understanding have allowed for progress in the creation of observationally based data/model metrics for the Southern Ocean. Metrics presented here provide a means to assess multiple simulations relative to the best available observations and observational products. Climate models that perform better according to these metrics also better simulate the uptake of heat and carbon by the Southern Ocean. This report is not strictly an intercomparison, but rather a distillation of key metrics that can reliably quantify the "accuracy" of a simulation against observed, or at least observable, quantities. One overall goal is to recommend standardization of observationally based benchmarks that the modeling community should aspire to meet in order to reduce uncertainties in climate projections, and especially uncertainties related to oceanic heat and carbon uptake. Plain Language Summary Observationally based metrics are essential for the standardized evaluation of climate and earth system models, and for reducing the uncertainty associated with future projections by those models.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUS CLIVAR; OCB; NSF's Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) Project under the NSF Award [PLR-1425989]; NOAA; NASA; NSF Award [PLR-1246247]en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherAMER GEOPHYSICAL UNIONen_US
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jgrc.v123.5en_US
dc.rights© 2018. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License.en_US
dc.subjectSouthern Oceanen_US
dc.subjectheat uptakeen_US
dc.subjectcarbon uptakeen_US
dc.subjectobservationally based metricsen_US
dc.titleMetrics for the Evaluation of the Southern Ocean in Coupled Climate Models and Earth System Modelsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Geoscien_US
dc.identifier.journalJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANSen_US
dc.description.note6 month embargo; published online: 16 February 2018en_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.journaltitleJournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
dc.source.volume123
dc.source.issue5
refterms.dateFOA2018-08-16T00:00:00Z


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