The Redwall Limestone - The fascinating history and character of Grand Canyon's thickest limestone
Grand Canyon National Park
Grand Canyon strata
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CitationGootee, B.F., 2014, The Redwall Limestone - The fascinating history and character of Grand Canyon's thickest limestone. A Powerpoint presentation, Grand Canyon Guide Training Seminar 8 February 2014, 27 slides.
DescriptionWhat makes the Redwall Limestone a unique and important stratigraphic unit in the Grand Canyon? This is one of the questions asked and answered in this guide to the Redwall. Written to assist guides in describing the geology of Grand Canyon, this colorful product should be of use to professional geologists, geophiles and people generally interested in geology. Jargon is minimized and the colorful illustrations provide a framework for understanding the underlying geologic concepts.
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Geologic Mapping of Debris-flow deposits in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Pima County, ArizonaCline, M.L.; Cook, J.P.; Pearthree, P.A.; Youberg, A.; Webb, R.H. (Arizona Geological Survey (Tucson, AZ), 2008-09-01)
Ecology of riparian breeding birds along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, ArizonaBrown, Bryan T. (The University of Arizona., 1987)The density, diversity, and nest-site selection of riparian breeding birds were studied from 1982 to 1985 in mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) and tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis) communites along the Colorado River in northern Arizona. Avian density in tamarisk communities was significantly greater (P=0.052 and 0.024 in 1984 and 1985, respectively) than avian density in native mesquite communities with similar vegetative cover and height attributes. Avian diversity was similar in both communities. Breeding bird densities in tamarisk were higher than those reported from other geographic areas. Vegetation structure and shrub species composition were measured at nest sites of eleven species of riparian birds in a tamarisk community to examine avian habitat relationships. Riparian birds exhibited differences in their choice of nesting habitat. Discriminant analysis indicated that Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii), Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) and Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) were relative generalists in nest site selection, while Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Northern Oriole (Icterus galbula) were relative habitat specialists. Bell's Vireo and American Coot (Fulica americana) nested in habitats that were the most different. Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) and Yellow Warbler nested in habitats that were the most similar. Willow Flycatcher and Yellow Warbler consistently used habitat most similar to that used by all other species. Nest placement preferences of six riparian passerines were examined in the tamarisk community to test the null hypothesis that nest placement in any given species of shrub was random. Ninety-five of 105 nests sampled were located in tamarisk. Five of the six species of passerines exhibited a significant preference for tamarisk for nest placement. A highly significant preference for tamarisk was shown by the four species with the smallest median frequency of tamarisk in their nesting habitat. The usefulness of tamarisk for nest placement was higher than that reported from other areas.
The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Adams, Karen Rogers. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.