KeywordsArizona Geological Survey Bulletins
United States of America
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherUniversity of Arizona Bureau of Mines
DescriptionThis pamphlet has been compiled as a text to be used in the Arizona Bureau of Mine's extension lectures on "Prospector's Mineralogy." Many of the people attending these lectures, especially those most interested, have had very little, if any, technical training in mineralogy, chemistry, and allied sciences. For that reason this pamphlet has been written in as simple and non-technical language as the subject permits, yet the directions given are full enough so that anyone should be able to understand how to do the work. The method of procedure suggested to beginners in this line of work is first to practice each specific test for each metal on a mineral that is positively known to contain that metal or to practice the tests on a piece of that metal. This practice should be continued until the beginner becomes thoroughly familiar with the various tests for that metal as well as those for other metals. These tests can then be applied to ores of unknown metallic contents if it is desired to determine whether a certain metal is present. 29 p.
Series/Report no.Bulletin No. 105
Mineral Technology Series No. 23
RightsPublic Domain: This material has been identified as being free of known restrictions under U.S. copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.
Collection InformationDocuments in the AZGS Document Repository collection are made available by the Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS) and the University Libraries at the University of Arizona. For more information about items in this collection, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
North Bounding Coordinate48.6496
South Bounding Coordinate24.63
West Bounding Coordinate-124.98
East Bounding Coordinate-67.8516
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Electronic structure investigations of multiple bonding between atoms: From metal-nitrogen triple bonds to metal-metal triple and quadruple bondsLichtenberger, Dennis L.; English, Jason B. (The University of Arizona., 2002)The nature of multiple bonding involving transition metal atoms has been explored via photoelectron spectroscopic and computational studies of molecules containing metal-metal quadruple and triple bonds as well as of molecules containing formal metal-nitrogen triple bonds. The principles governing the nature of the multiple bonding in these systems are similar whether the multiple bonding occurs between two transition metals or between a transition metal and a nitrogen atom. First, the electronic structures of the R₃M≡N molecules, where R = ᵗBuO (Cr, Mo, W); iPrO (Mo); (CH₃)₂CF₃CO (Mo); and Cl (Mo), are examined by photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional calculations. To assign the features seen in the photoelectron spectra, close attention is paid to the effects of (1) metal substitution and (2) alkoxide (or Cl) substitution. Examination of the photoelectron spectra of the full series of alkoxide-substituted molecules allows the relative positions of the ionizations from the M≡N σ and π orbitals to be identified. Of great importance to the electronic structure of these molecules are the alkoxide orbital combinations that mix strongly with the M≡N σ and π orbitals. The importance of the ancillary ligand combinations is clearly demonstrated by the photoelectron spectroscopic and computational studies of Cl₃Mo≡N. The replacement of the alkoxide ligand with chlorides greatly simplifies the resultant photoelectron spectrum, allowing all of the valence ionizations to be assigned. Next, the bonding in the M₂X₄(PMe₃)₄ molecules, where M = Mo (X = Cl, Br); W (X = Cl); and Re (X = Cl, Br, I), is explored by photoelectron spectroscopic investigations in conjunction with electronic structure calculations. From these investigations, the ionizations from the metal-based orbitals as well as several ligand-based orbitals have been assigned. The first ionization energies of both the molybdenum (δ) and rhenium (δ*) molecules decrease as the electronegativity of the halide increases. The origin of this inverse halide effect is explored. Finally, the nature of the quadruple metal-metal bond in the M₂(chp)₄ molecules (M = Cr, Mo, W; chp = 2-chloro-6-oxo-pyridinate) is probed. For all three metal systems, an ionization from the M₂ δ orbital can be seen. This is only the second time a distinct ionization feature has been noted for ionization of the delta orbital from a dichromium molecule. Comparisons with the previously studied M₂(mhp)₄ molecules (mhp = 6-methyl-2-oxo-pyridinate) allow for a better understanding of the electronic structure of these molecules.
The Leoncino Dwarf Galaxy: Exploring the Low-metallicity End of the Luminosity–Metallicity and Mass–Metallicity RelationsMcQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Salzer, John J.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Hirschauer, Alec S.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-03-18)Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are low-mass, star-forming galaxies with gas-phase oxygen abundances below 12 + log(O/H) = 7.35 (similar to 1/20Z(circle dot)). Galaxy evolution scenarios suggest three pathways to form an XMP: (1) secular evolution at low galaxy masses, (2) slow evolution in voids, or (3) dilution of measured abundances from infall of pristine gas. The recently discovered XMP galaxy Leoncino, with an oxygen abundance below 3% Z(circle dot), provides an opportunity to explore these different scenarios. Using Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations of Leoncino, we measure the distance to the galaxy to be D = 12.1(3.4)(+1.7) Mpc and find that Leoncino is located in an underdense environment. Leoncino has a compact morphology, hosts a population of young, massive stars, has a high gas-to-star mass ratio, and shows signs of interaction with a galaxy nearby on the sky, UGC 5186. Similar to nearly all XMP galaxies known in the nearby universe, Leoncino is offset from the Luminosity-Metallicity (LZ) relation. However, Leoncino is consistent with the stellar Mass-Metallicity (MZ) relation defined by Local Volume galaxies. Thus, our results suggest that the offset from the LZ relation is due to higher recent star formation, likely triggered by a minor interaction, while the low oxygen abundance is consistent with the expectation that low-mass galaxies will undergo secular evolution marked by inefficient star formation and metal loss via galactic winds. This is in contrast to XMP galaxies that are outliers in both the LZ and MZ relations; in such cases, the low oxygen abundances are best explained by dilution due to the infall of pristine gas. We also discuss why quiescent XMP galaxies are underrepresented in current surveys.
THE IONIZATION/STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS IN SOME METAL-MOLECULE AND QUADRUPLY-BONDED METAL-METAL INTERACTIONS.BLEVINS, CHARLES HENRY, II. (The University of Arizona., 1984)This dissertation describes the experimental study of the electronic-structural relationships of selected mononuclear transition-metal sulfur dioxide, cyclopentadienyl and carbonyl complexes and the application of the information gained from these to the study of quadruply-bonded dimetallic complexes. These pertinent observations result from the application of photoelectron spectroscopy (p.e.s.) as a probe into the bonding, charge-distribution and excited state effects which contribute to the specifics of the ground and excited state molecular structures. The first part of this discussion centers around a specific study of the exemplary bonding probe, SO₂, with the well characterized ArM(CO)₂ metal fragment, where Ar = Bz and Cp and M = Cr, Mn and Re. A comparison of the ionization information with the structural details and molecular orbital calculations reveals not only the surprising coordinating similarity of SO₂ and CO in these complexes, but also the electronic origin for the counter-intuitive SO₂ bonding configuration. This work then moves to a more dramatic example of electronic control of ground state molecular structure; the crystallographically determined distortion of the coordinated Cp ring in Cp*Rh(CO)₂. The electronic origin of this distortion is graphically shown with the aid of two and three dimensional experimental and theoretical electron density maps. The structural effects of removing bonding electrons from quadruply-bonded dimetallic complexes is then investigated. This study incorporates the use of high-resolution p.e.s. for the novel observations of metal-metal vibrational structure in the predominantly metal ionizations providing direct information of the bonding influence of specific metal electrons. Particular attention is focused on the delta-ionization process of MO₂(O₂CCH₃)₄. The final chapter presents a comprehensive study of the valence and core ionizations of the series of quadruply-bonded M₂(X₂CR)₄ complexes, where M₂ = Cr₂, Mo₂, MoW, and W₂, X = O and S, and R = H, CH₃, CD₃, CF₃, CH₂CH₃, CH₂CH₂CH₃ and C(CH₃)₃. The changes in the electronic structure in both the ground and excited states of these molecules is presented and, where appropriate, compared to structural changes. The study of this series not only demonstrates how p.e.s. can be used to monitor the electronic effects of specific chemical modifications, but also reveals surprising excited state features related to facile charge-reorganization processes.