Electroless Deposition of Cobalt by Coordination and Reduction of Palladium Catalyst by Surface Amines Groups
AuthorNg, Amy Sum-Yee
AdvisorMuscat, Anthony J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
EmbargoRelease after 08/27/2020
AbstractSolution-deposited palladium on amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is a well-characterized catalyst and adhesion layer combination for electroless metallization of dielectric films. A reducing agent is typically added to the deposition bath or a sensitizer such as tin is co-deposited producing relatively thick Pd layers. Thinner Pd deposits would enable barrier seed layers for filling < 10 nm wide gaps in patterned dielectric films with metal. In this work, we eliminated the reducing agent from the deposition bath and worked at pH < 2 to deposit monomeric Pd(2+) species and show that the amine groups terminating the SAM reduce Pd(2+) to Pd(0). The amount of Pd deposited depended on the coverage of the two types of amines on the SAM. The adsorption of PdCl42- ions in solution on protonated amine groups (–NH3+) is well known. Our data suggest that the nonprotonated amine groups (–NH2), which coexist with –NH3+, chemically reduce the Pd(2+) ion to Pd metal by oxidizing to the amine radical cation (–NH2•+). Pd bonds to and covers the –NH2•+ groups in the process depositing around a monolayer of Pd from solution on the SAM-covered silicon oxide surface. The Pd layer served as a catalyst for solution deposition of cobalt films on the surface using a reducing agent under oxygen-free conditions. The cobalt deposited initially as islands that grew together into a closed film with good adhesion.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Materials Science & Engineering