ABOUT THE COLLECTION

This issue is the Center for Mediterranean Archaeology and the Environment (CMATE) Special Issue, a Joint publication of Radiocarbon and Tree-Ring Research.

Tree-Ring Research is the peer-reviewed journal of the Tree Ring Society. The journal was first published in 1934 under the title Tree-Ring Bulletin. In 2001, the title changed to Tree-Ring Research.

Issues from 1934–2006 are freely available on the publications section of the Tree-Ring Society website. The Tree-Ring Society and the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona partnered with the University Libraries to re-digitize back issues for improved searching capabilities and long-term preservation.


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Contact the Editor of Tree-Ring Research at editor@treeringsociety.org.

Recent Submissions

  • Dendrochronological dating in Egypt: Work accomplished and future prospects

    Kuniholm, P.I.; Newton, M.; Sherbiny, H.; Bassir, H. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    We assess the state of and potential for expansion of dendroarchaeological research in Egypt. We also report previously unpublished findings, which we hope will assist with the new effort in constructing tree-ring chronologies in Egypt. In doing so, we explain briefly some of the problems and potential of the future enterprise.
  • Tree Rings and the chronology of ancient Egypt

    Creasman, P.P. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    A fundamental aspect of ancient Egyptian history remains unresolved: chronology. Egyptologists (and researchers in related fields that synchronize their studies with Egypt) currently rely on a variety of insufficiently precise methodologies (king lists, radiocarbon dating, etc.) from which to derive seemingly “absolute” dates. The need for genuine precision has been recognized for a century, as has the potential solution: dendrochronology. This manuscript presents a case for further progress toward the construction of a tree-ring chronology for ancient Egypt.
  • A tree-ring based late summer temperature reconstruction (AD 1675–1980) for the northeastern Mediterranean

    Trouet, V. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    This article presents a late summer temperature reconstruction (AD 1675–1980) for the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED) that is based on a compilation of maximum latewood density tree-ring data from 21 high-elevation sites. This study applied a novel approach by combining individual series from all sites into one NEMED master chronology. This approach retains only the series with a strong and temporally robust common signal and it improves reconstruction length. It further improved the regional character of the reconstruction by using as a target averaged gridded instrumental temperature data from a broad NEMED region (38–45°N, 15–25°E). Cold (e.g. 1740) and warm (e.g. 1945) extreme years and decades in the reconstruction correspond to regional instrumental and reconstructed temperature records. Some extreme periods (e.g. cold 1810s) reflect European-wide or global-scale climate conditions and can be explained by volcanic and solar forcing. Other extremes are strictly regional in scope. For example, 1976 was the coldest NEMED summer over the last 350 years, but was anomalously dry and hot in northwestern Europe and is a strong manifestation of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (sNAO). The regional NEMED summer reconstruction thus contributes to an improved understanding of regional (e.g. sNAO) vs. global-scale (i.e. external) drivers of past climate variability.
  • Data management in dendroarchaeology using Tellervo

    Brewer, P.W. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    The Tellervo dendrochronological software builds upon the Tree-Ring Data Standard (TRiDaS) to provide a tool for recording and managing all manner of dendrochronological data. However, Tellervo is especially useful for dendroarchaeological research. The traditional file formats used in dendrochronology—and by association the applications that use them—have very limited and nonstandard methods for recording rich information about dendro samples and their context. Such information is especially important in dendroarchaeological research to ensure accurate conclusions are made. Tellervo is described here in the context of research carried out as part of the excavations of the Theodosian Harbor at Yenikapı, Istanbul.
  • Potential for a new multimillennial tree-ring chronology from subfossil Balkan River oaks

    Pearson, C.L.; Ważny, T.; Kuniholm, P.I.; Botić, K.; Durman, A.; Seufer, K. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    A total of 272 oak (Quercus sp.) samples have been collected from large subfossil trees dredged from sediment deposited by the Sava and various tributary rivers in the Zagreb region of northwestern Croatia, and in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurement series of tree-ring widths from these samples produced 12 groups, totaling 3456 years of floating tree-ring chronologies spread through the last ca. 8000 years. This work represents the first step in creating a new, high-resolution resource for dating and paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the Balkan region and potentially a means to bridge between the floating tree-ring chronologies of the wider Mediterranean region and the continuous long chronologies from central Europe.
  • Dendroclimatology in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Touchan, R.; Meko, D.M.; Anchukaitis, K.J. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    Dendroclimatology in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region has made important contributions to the understanding of climate variability on timescales of decades to centuries. These contributions, beginning in the mid-20th century, have value for resource management, archaeology, and climatology. A gradually expanding tree-ring network developed by the first author over the past 15 years has been the framework for some of the most important recent advances in EM dendroclimatology. The network, now consisting of 79 sites, has been widely applied in large-scale climatic reconstruction and in helping to identify drivers of climatic variation on regional to global spatial scales. This article reviews EM dendroclimatology and highlights contributions on the national and international scale.
  • An archaeometric and archaeological approach to Hellenistic–Early Roman ceramic workshops in Greece: Contribution to dating

    Kondopoulou, D.; Zananiri, I.; Rathossi, C.; de Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Hasaki, E. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    The present article comprises a multidisciplinary archaeometric approach for the study of Hellenistic and Early Roman kilns in Greece. A collection of previously published and new archaeomagnetic data are combined with new results from mineralogical analytical experiments. The sampled material came from four areas, covering different geological contexts: Katerini, Olympiada, and Polymylos in mainland Greece, and the island of Paros. Extensive rock-magnetic experiments, including identification of the dominant ferromagnetic minerals present, their domain state, and mineralogical alterations during laboratory treatments, have been carried out in order to examine the magnetic properties of the studied materials and prove their suitability for reliable archaeomagnetic determinations. Magnetic cleaning provided well-defined archaeomagnetic directions, and archaeointensity measurements were carried out using both the Thellier-Thellier and Triaxe protocols. Information from both magnetic and mineralogical properties referring to firing conditions is further discussed along with archaeological information. Finally, a new dating of the four sites together with other structures of similar age was carried out using the Pavón-Carrasco model.
  • Bridging the gaps in tree-ring records: Creating a high-resolution dendrochronological network for southeastern Europe

    Ważny, T.; Lorentzen, B.; Köse, N.; Akkemik, Ü.; Boltryk, Y.; Güner, T.; Kyncl, J.; Kyncl, T.; Nechita, C.; Sagaydak, S.; Vasileva, J.K. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    Dendrochronological research in North-Central Europe and the East Mediterranean has produced networks of long regional oak (Quercus sp.) reference chronologies that have been instrumental in dating, provenancing, and paleoclimate research applications. However, until now these two important tree-ring networks have not been successfully linked. Oak forests and historical/archaeological sites in southeastern Europe provide the key for linking the North-Central European and East Mediterranean tree-ring networks, but previous dendrochronological research in this region has been largely absent. This article presents the initial results of a project, in which we have built oak tree-ring chronologies from forest sites and historical/archaeological sites along a north-south transect between Poland and northwestern Turkey, with the aim of linking the North-Central European and East Mediterranean tree-ring networks and creating a new pan-European oak data set for dendrochronological dating and paleoclimatic reconstruction. Correlation among tree-ring chronologies and the spatial distribution of their teleconnections are evaluated. The southeastern European chronologies provide a solid bridge between both major European dendrochronological networks. The results indicate that a dense network of chronologies is the key for bridging spatial and temporal gaps in tree-ring records. Dendrochronological sampling should be intensively continued in southeastern Europe because resources for building long oak chronologies in the region are rapidly disappearing.
  • Radiocarbon dating, mineralogy, and isotopic composition of hackberry endocarps from the Neolithic site of Aşıklı Höyük, central Turkey

    Quade, J.; Li, S.; Stiner, M.C.; Clark, A.E.; Mentzer, S.M.; Özbaşaran, M. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    Carbonate is abundant in many Neolithic tells and is a potentially useful archive for dating and climate reconstruction. In this paper, we focus on the mineralogy, radiocarbon dating, and stable isotope systematics of carbonate in hackberry endocarps. Hackberry fruits and seeds are edible in fresh and stored forms, and they were consumed in large quantities in many Neolithic sites in the Near East, including the site of our study, Aşıkli Höyük in central Anatolia, an Aceramic Neolithic tell occupied from about 9.4 to > 10.3 BP (7.4 to > 8.3 BCE). Detailed 14C age control provided by archaeological charcoal permits a test of the fidelity in 14C dating of hackberry endocarps. Modern endocarps and leaves yield fraction modern 14C values of 1.050–1.066, consistent with levels present in the atmosphere when sampled in 2009. On the other hand, archaeological endocarps yield consistently younger ages than associated charcoal by ca. 130 14C years (ca. 220 calendar years) for samples about 10,000 years old. We speculate this is caused by the slight addition of calcite or recrystallization to calcite in the endocarp, as detected by scanning electron microscopy. Subtle addition or replacement of calcite by primary aragonite is not widely recognized in the 14C community, even though similar effects are reported from other natural carbonates such as shell carbonate. This small (but consistent) level of contamination supports the usefulness of endocarps in dating where other materials like charcoal are lacking. Before dating, however, hackberries should be carefully screened for mineralogical preservation and context. We examined the carbon and oxygen isotopic systematics of the fossil endocarps to try to establish potential source areas for harvesting. Most of the hackberries are enriched in 18O compared to local water sources, indicating that they were drawing on highly evaporated soil water, rather than the local (perched and regional) water table sampled in our study. Isotopic evidence therefore suggests that most but not all of the hackberries were harvested from nearby mesas well above the local streams and seeps fed by the water table.
  • The Interaction of Climate Change and Agency in the Collapse of Civilizations c. 2300–2000 BC

    Wiener, M.H. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    Human history has been marked by major episodes of climate change and human response, sometimes accompanied by independent innovations. In the Bronze Age, the sequencing of causes and reactions is dependent in part on dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating. This paper explores the interaction of a major, prolonged desiccation event between c. 2300 and 2000 BC and human agency including migrations, the displacement of trading networks, warfare, the appearance of weapons made of bronze, and the first appearance of sailing vessels in the Mediterranean.
  • Editors' Note

    Jull, A.J.T.; Leavitt, S.W. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)