SPIRITS 16tn in NGC 3556: A Heavily Obscured and Low-luminosity Supernova at 8.8 Mpc
AuthorJencson, Jacob E.
Kasliwal, Mansi M.
Adams, Scott M.
Bond, Howard E.
Lau, Ryan M.
Mooley, Kunal P.
Masci, Frank J.
Cody, Ann Marie
Fox, Ori D.
Gehrz, Robert D.
Milne, Peter A.
Perley, Daniel A.
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
galaxies: individual (NGC 3556)
supernovae: individual (SPIRITS 16tn)
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationJacob E. Jencson et al 2018 ApJ 863 20
Rights© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
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AbstractWe present the discovery by the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) of a likely supernova (SN) in NGC 3556 (M108) at only 8.8 Mpc that was not detected by optical searches. A luminous infrared (IR) transient at M-[4.5] = -16.7 mag (Vega), SPIRITS 16tn is coincident with a dust lane in the inclined, star-forming disk of the host. Using observations in the IR, optical, and radio, we attempt to determine the nature of this event. We estimate A(v) approximate to 8-9 mag of extinction, placing it among the three most highly obscured IR-discovered SNe. The [4.5] light curve declined at a rate of 0.013 mag day(-1), and the [3.6]-[4.5] color increased from 0.7 to greater than or similar to 1.0 mag by 184.7 days post discovery. Optical/IR spectroscopy shows a red continuum but no clearly discernible features, preventing a definitive spectroscopic classification. Radio observations constrain the radio luminosity of SPIRITS 16tn to L-nu less than or similar to 10(24) erg s(-1) Hz(-1) between 3 and 15 GHz, excluding many varieties of core-collapse SNe. An SN Ia is ruled out by the observed IR color and lack of spectroscopic features from Fe-peak elements. SPIRITS 16tn was fainter at [4.5] than typical stripped-envelope SNe by mag. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution to SNe II suggests that SPIRITS 16tn was both highly obscured and intrinsically dim, possibly akin to the low-luminosity SN 2005cs. We infer the presence of an IR dust echo powered by an initial peak luminosity of the transient of 5 x 10(40) erg s(-1)less than or similar to L-peak less than or similar to 4 x l0(43) erg s(-1), consistent with the observed range for SNe II. This discovery illustrates the power of IR surveys to overcome the compounding effects of visible extinction and optically subluminous events in completing the inventory of nearby SNe.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsNational Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship [DGE-1144469]; NASA from the Space Telescope Science Institute [GO-13935, GO-14258]; NASA [NAS 5-26555, NAS5-26555, NNX09AH71G, NNX09AT02G, NNX10AI27G, NNX12AE66G]; United States Air Force; I-Core Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee; Israel Science Foundation; W. M. Keck Foundation; CONACyT [INFR-2009-01-122785]; UNAM PAPIIT grant [IN113810]; UC MEXUS-CONACyT grant; NASA; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy [DE-AC02-05CH1123]; U.S. National Science Foundation, Division of Astronomical Sciences [AST-0950945]; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; National Science Foundation; University of Arizona; Brazilian Participation Group; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Carnegie Mellon University; University of Florida; French Participation Group; German Participation Group; Harvard University; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group; Johns Hopkins University; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics; New Mexico State University; New York University; Ohio State University; Pennsylvania State University; University of Portsmouth; Princeton University; Spanish Participation Group; University of Tokyo; University of Utah; Vanderbilt University; University of Virginia; University of Washington; Yale University; [SNAP-5446]