Energy Conservation Techniques in Mid-Rise Residential Buildings that Contribute to Mitigate Urban Heat Island in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
AuthorAlamri, Uthman Abdullah
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe environmental consequences of nonrenewable energy production are present in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Saudi energy production depends on fossil fuel combustion, which combined with energy production processes, results in the production of anthropogenic heat and greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases raise the concentration of these gases in the atmospheric boundary layer and contribute to the creation of an inversion layer (Sahashi, Hieda, and Yamashita 531-535). This leads to changing climatological parameters and the formation of urban heat islands. The urban heat island phenomena affects the environment around buildings. Rising temperatures are accompanied by extreme heat in the hot, arid, desert weather experienced during the day in Makkah, KSA. The urban heat island effect disturbs buildings’ indoor human thermal comfort. As a result, the building sector in Saudi Arabia accounts for 78% of the energy consumption and cooling load count for 70% of the total (BUILDINGS | Saudi Energy Efficiency Center 2018). Cooling systems produce heat waste, which counts as a source of anthropogenic heat, one of the principles of urban heat island formation that results in a high demand for energy production and anthropogenic heat again. This research aims to mitigate urban heat island formation by focusing on anthropogenic heat reduction from the building itself and power plants (energy consumption and energy production) by applying two packages of energy conservation strategies - Passive and Active - on a case study building in design phase. eQUEST energy modeling software was used to calculate the building’s annual consumption as well as energy saving from the case study after implementing energy conservation strategies. The strategies implemented in this study reduced the energy consumption from 1,119,600 kWh to 535,000 kWh. This accounts for a 53 % reduction of energy consumption, which in turn prevents the release of 730 metric tons of CO2. In summary, the building has a crucial impact on the local environment, and a well-designed building can enhance building energy performance, maintain energy production sources, and prevents climatological changes that happen due to anthropogenic heat production and energy consumption.
Degree ProgramGraduate College