The Columbia River Basin Fish Accords: Dammed if You Do, Dammed if You Don't?
KeywordsIndians of North America -- Fishing -- Northwest, Pacific
Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Treaties
Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific -- Government relations
Endangered species -- Law and legislation -- United States
Water resources development -- Law and legislation -- Columbia River Watershed
Water resources development -- Environmental aspects -- Columbia River Watershed
Watershed management -- Law and legislation -- Columbia River Watershed
Watershed management -- Environmental aspects -- Columbia River Watershed
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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The Effects of Past Climate Change and Recent Agricultural Irrigation Recharge on the Sources, Ages, and Quality of Groundwater in the Columbia River Basalt Aquifers, Columbia Basin, Central WashingtonMcIntosh, Jennifer C.; Brown, Kyle; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Baker, Victor; Lohse, Kathleen; Ferre, Ty (The University of Arizona., 2009)This study uses multiple isotopic (2H, 18O, 13C, 15NNO3, 18ONO3, 87Sr/86Sr) and age tracers (3H, 14C, CFCs), in conjunction with elemental chemistry, to address the following research question: How have present day anthropogenic activities (i.e. surface water irrigation and fertilizer application) and past climatic events (i.e. cataclysmic flooding from glacial Lake Missoula and other modes of discharge from Cordilleran Ice Sheet) impacted the hydrology and geochemistry of the Columbia River Basalt Aquifers (CRBAs) in central Washington? Large-scale irrigated agriculture over the past ~60 years has resulted in the transport of high NO3- irrigation waters moving downward in the oxic CRBAs at rates of several meters per decade with a lack of denitrification. Deeper pristine regional groundwater in the CRBAs is Late Pleistocene in age and likely remnant Cordilleran Ice Sheet-related recharge waters (i.e. glacial Lake Missoula floodwaters).
Fish, Floatboats, AND Feds: The Impact of Commercial Floatboating on ESA Listed Salmon, Disproportionate Regulation and Directions for Recovery Throughout the Columbia River BasinFornander, David Eric; Robbins, Paul; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.; Yool, Stephen R.; Shaw, William (The University of Arizona., 2008)Since the mid 1900s Pacific salmon have declined at an alarming rate. The burden for conserving this regional icon has been placed primarily upon the US Forest Service, whose mandates often times collide with state and private interests and whose actions frequently impact local communities. How much affect such small-scale focus actually has on the recovery of salmon is a topic of much debate.My research investigates the highly regulated industry of commercial floatboating and how it may impact spawning salmon. No significant variance in the timing of redds established in areas that are floated vs. those that are not was identified. Despite this, commercial floatboating remains highly regulated, while other more affective actions are minimally regulated.Results indicate that large disparities currently exist relative to how we regulate actions that impact listed salmon, largely attributed to current interpretation of the ESA. Specific examples include high regulation of local level, federally managed land use strategies such as outdoor recreation and minimal regulation of historic and more affective, state managed land use strategies such as water use and irrigation.Those who support broader scale approaches to recovery have begun to call for a shift in management strategies that focus more on the watershed as a whole. Perceived power, effect and value of various land use types play a prominent role in how recovery strategies are directed and whether or not they are consistent with sound science. Land uses recognized as having the most constituent power were identified as having the most adverse impact on salmon and their recovery. Although a shift in management strategies toward a watershed scale approach would benefit salmon and land users that have the least impact on salmon, it appears unlikely to occur because it would not benefit those that have the most influence or power.With uncertainty surrounding global climate futures, and understanding that we must re-configure institutions to provide alternatives to sustain coupled natural and human systems, I call for a watershed scale approach and consilience across disciplines and scales of governance.
Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology Around Two 8 − 10 m Wide Columbia River Flood Basalt DikesKarlstrom, Leif; Murray, Kendra E.; Reiners, Peter W.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-04-30)Flood basalt volcanism involves large volumes of magma emplaced into the crust and surface environment on geologically short timescales. The mechanics of flood basalt emplacement, including dynamics of the crustal magma transport system and the tempo of individual eruptions, are not well-constrained. Here we study two exhumed dikes from the Columbia River Flood Basalt province in northeast Oregon, USA, using apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology to constrain dike emplacement histories. Sample transects perpendicular to the dike margins document transient heating of granitic host rocks. We model heating as due to dike emplacement, considering a thermal model with distinct melt-fraction temperature relationships for basaltic magma and granitic wallrock, and a parameterization of unsteady flow within the dike. We model partial resetting of thermochronometers by considering He diffusion in spherical grains as a response to dike heating. A Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo framework is used to jointly invert for six parameters related to dike emplacement and grain-scale He diffusion. We find that the two dikes, despite similar dimensions on an outcrop scale, exhibit different spatial patterns of thermochronometer partial resetting away from the dike. These patterns predict distinct emplacement histories. We extend previousmodeling of a presumed feeder dike atMaxwell Lake in theWallowaMountains of northeastern Oregon, finding posterior probability distribution functions (PDFs) that predict steady heating from sustained magma flow over 1-6 years and elevated farfield host rock temperatures. This suggests regional-scale heating in the vicinity of Maxwell Lake, which might arise from nearby intrusions. The other dike, within the Cornucopia subswarm, is predicted to have a 1-4 year thermally active lifespan with an unsteady heating rate suggestive of lowmagma flow rate compared to Maxwell Lake, in a cool near-surface thermal environment. In both cases, misfit of near-dike partial resetting of thermochronometers by models suggests either heat transfer via fluid advection in host rocks or pulsed magma flow in the dikes. Our results highlight the diversity of dike emplacement histories within the Columbia River Flood Basalt province and the power of Bayesian inversion methods for quantifying parameter trade-offs and uncertainty in thermal models.