• Constraint Gain for Two Dimensional Magnetic Recording Channels

      Bahrami, Mohsen; Vasic, Bane; Marcellin, Michael; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we study performance gains of constrained codes in Two dimensional Magnetic Recording (TDMR) channels using the notion of constraint gain. We consider Voronoi based TDMR channels with realistic grain, bit, track and magnetic-head dimensions. Specifically, we investigate the constraint gain for two-dimensional no-isolated-bit constraint over Voronoi based TDMR channels. We focus on schemes that employ the generalized belief propagation algorithm for obtaining information rate estimates for TDMR channels.

      Whittington, Austin; Ibaroudene, Hakima; Abbott, Ben; Yao, Di; Hite, Joseph; Bapty, Theodore; Moskal, Jakub; Neumann, Michael; Southwest Research Institute; Vanderbilt University; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      As technologies like network-based telemetry and standardized configuration languages begin to see wider adoption within the flight test community, new techniques exploring the new possibilities they provide are also developed. This paper reviews a subset of these techniques, including successful use in commercial flight test, focusing on the concepts of constraints and their application in the field, specifically their use in helping users to create correct-by-construction configurations. We then explore ongoing efforts with the Air Force and DARPA to extend these techniques into constraint satisfaction and real-time adaptation, providing the ability to create and adapt configurations to match (possibly changing) test requirements.

      Fansler, Aaron; Ampex Intelligent Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper reviews at a high level Ampex’s Black Lightning capability. The Black Lightning capability tool was developed to be the first cyber defensive tool specifically designed to work at the field device component level of a Control System (CS). BLACK LIGHTNING is a passive, real-time monitoring and detection tool designed and built specifically for control systems professionals. The BLACK LIGHTNING capability uses a patent pending detection algorithm, which scans SCADA specific protocols for any anomalous activity within the customer defined component thresholds. In doing this BLACK LIGHTNING is able to alerting operators of any abnormal activity for further investigation faster than anything currently on the market. One can look at the internals of an aircraft as multiple layers of control systems working together. As defined, “A control system is a collection of mechanical and electrical equipment that allows an aircraft to be flown with exceptional precision and reliability”. An aircraft has many control systems. These systems consist of fuel, heat, speed, altitude, hydraulics, navigation, communications, sensors, actuators, servos, multiple computers just to name a few as examples. At Ampex, we view a control system as what it is, a control system. The process(es) above that the control system(s) is transparent to us. If you protect the system and subsystems below the process then by default you will protect the process above regardless if it’s an industrial power plant, nuclear power plant, water facility, manufacturing plant or an aircraft. At Ampex we protect the process by monitoring and protecting the systems below.
    • CFO Estimation by Exploiting Channel Sparsity in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Afran, Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we explore a carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation scheme with sparsity-constraint (SC) on the aeronautical telemetry channels. This SC CFO estimator is implemented in two steps. In the first step, channel support is recovered by combining compressed sensing techniques with the CFO estimate based on the non-sparsity constraint (NSC) on the channel. Next we use the estimated channel support to derive the SC CFO estimator. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of the SC CFO estimator against the existing NSC CFO estimators using shaped offset QPSK version TG (SOQPSK-TG) modulated iNET-formatted data over an aeronautical test channel.
    • The Design and Application of C-band Base Station Based Multi-target Telemetry Network System

      Shiwei, Guo; Zhongjie, Wang; Xin, Zhang; Zhaohui, Huo; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      A C-band base station based multi-target telemetry network system for flight test is designed in this paper. The requirements of multi-target transmission are realized by TDMA and TDD technology. And the transmission rate of up to 50 Mbps is provided by the high efficient modulation method. An integrated air-to-ground telemetry network is built with C-band wireless two-way link. The telemetry signals of super large airspace are covered seamlessly through multiple base stations, therefore the shortage of current telemetry is solved, and the demand of multi-target and mass date transmission for flight test is satisfied. The development of the system provides technical support for the high speed data transmission of the flight test, which will lay a foundation for the construction of integrated air-to-ground test and the test network system.

      Peken, Ture; Tandon, Ravi; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology has recently gained a lot of at- tention as a candidate technology for the next generation wireless systems. With a higher number of antennas, pilot-based channel estimation faces a limitation in the number of or- thogonal pilots to be used among users in all cells. Sparse channel estimation by using regularization methods can reduce the pilots compared to pilot-based channel estimation. In this paper, we study two regularization methods: least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and elastic net. We investigate the performance of least squares (LS), lasso, and elastic net when the sparsity of the channel changes over time. We study the optimum tuning parameters for lasso and elastic net based channel estimators to achieve the best performance with the di erent number of pilots and values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, we present the asymptotic analysis of LS, lasso, and elastic net based channel esti- mators.

      Shunqin, Xie; Ke, Zhou; Dahai, Chen; Xianglu, Li; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to solve the problem of timing synchronization at low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) for Multi-h CPM, a code-aided early-late loop(ELL) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is based on the iterative detection of serially concatenated Multi-h CPM with convolutional codes. The ELL timing estimator based on sequence detection is extended to the maximum-logarithmic maximum a posteriori (max-log MAP) detection. By using the information updated by iterative detection, the timing accuracy of multi-h CPM can be improved at low SNR. The simulation results show that, even when the bit signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/No) is as low as 3dB~5dB, the estimating variance of the proposed synchronization can be close to the Cramer Rao bound(MCRB) of ARTM CPM. After this timing synchronizing, the detection performance of the 10th iteration is only 0.03dB loss compared with the performance with ideal synchronization.

      Madon, Phiroz H.; Young, Tom; O’Brien, Thomas; Radke, Mark; Vencore Labs Development Team; Test Resource Management Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD test ranges are experiencing ever-expanding needs for air-to-ground telemetry bandwidth, and hence are under pressure to manage the telemetry spectrum resource with high efficiency. The Spectrum Management System (SMS) provides test range operations staff with advanced tools for frequency de-confliction and air-to-ground RF link quality prediction for upcoming test flights. Additional features of the system include: automated, algorithmbased frequency de-confliction and assignment; record-keeping and automated archiving of frequency assignments, to be used for spectrum defense; 3-D GIS terrain-based coverage maps, displaying predicted air-to-ground link quality in each part of upcoming flights; determination of opportunities for frequencies reuse. Innovations include: addressing the combinatorial NP-hard problem of frequency assignment by applying multiple real-world constraints in a specified order; using a spectrum white space closest-fit algorithm to minimize spectrum fragmentation; creating space-time-frequency quanta in the database to store RF emissions for rapidly-moving aircraft.
    • A New Network Telemetry technique In Aviatic Flight Tests

      Xingguo, Zhang; Hong, Li; Guojin, Peng; Zanchao, Wang; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to address the issue of insufficient telemetry frequencies in flight tests, a telemetry transmission solution is proposed to transmit the principal parameters and HUD video for multiple aircrafts based on bi-directional wireless network. All the key points including the wireless transmission architecture for airborne and ground integration, network resources management, and dynamic configuration of airborne test system are illustrated. The research result has been verified in flight tests, and the experimental methods and results are presented as well.

      Nassr, Husam; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science & Technology, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In wireless communication systems, turbo equalization has been used to mitigate the intersymbol interference caused by dispersive channels. Despite its computational complexity, turbo equalization achieves high performance compared to systems that implement the equalization and coding processes separately. The large performance gain achieved through turbo equalization comes from exchanging soft information between the equalizer and decoder in an iterative manner. However, the computational complexity of turbo equalization can be a significant challenge for systems with limited hardware capabilities. This paper examines the performance gain versus computational complexity trade-off for a soft-decision feedback turbo equalizer (SDFTE).We show how to select parameters that achieve a desired performance specification, while minimizing implementation overhead. Sample results are presented from a simulation of a system using a Proakis channel exhibiting severe ISI using QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM modulation schemes.

      Thompson, Rebecca; Hull, Thalia; Rice, Dr. Michael; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; BYU, Department of Mechanical Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Installing the many sensors required for flight testing is currently a difficult and awkward process requiring significant wiring. Short term sensor installation could be greatly improved if individual sensors did not have to be connected to a distant power source. This paper proposes that small aerodynamic vibration energy harvesting devices could provide power directly to sensors and simplify installation. To investigate feasibility, the simplest known energy harvester configuration is chosen. A mathematical model to represent the device is then developed. A test scenario using the aerodynamic vibrations present on the F-15B aircraft is then incorporated into the model. The test results are analyzed to determine if the energy harvesting device can produce sufficient energy to justify further analysis. Finally, potential design improvements are discussed.
    • Network Scheduling Algorithm with Efficient Backfill Process in the iNET

      Roh, Dongseok; Oh, Jonghun; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      One of the major advantage of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system is data backfill. In the iNET, network data server requests signal retransmission from the on-board recorder when the signal dropout is detected, and data is retransmitted which leads successful reception. If there are numerous test articles (TA), however, multiple backfill process for signal request and data retransmission can cause undesirable capacity waste. This paper describes the improved backfill process in iNET with multiple TAs. This process includes grouping and scheduling algorithm within TAs, and the orthogonal and non-orthogonal transmission. The system model and results are analyzed by simulation.
    • Research on Application Technology of Intelligent Wireless Sensor Network in Flight Test

      Chen, Peng; Jiang, Hongwei; Yan, Yihong; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Aimed at the problems of many test parameters, complicated lead wires, large additional weight, lack of flexibility and expandability as well as low level of intelligence and networkability of existing aircraft test flight test systems, with the application requirements of intelligent wireless sensor network for flight test technologies as the lead, this paper makes research on key technologies of intelligent wireless sensor network in aircraft flight test, and focuses on the synchronous acquisition system architecture, real-time protection method, and data transmission reliability checking method and the development of acquisition and recording system for wireless sensor networks based on the iNET standard for aircraft flight test. Besides, this paper also performs simulation and engine ground test verification which laid the foundation for the application of intelligent wireless sensor network technology in aircraft flight test.

      Ziegler, Robert; Triolo, Anthony; Samtani, Sunil; Weaver, Joshua; Perspecta Labs; US Naval Sea Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Comprehensive Spectrum Monitoring System (COSMOS) is Perspecta Labs’ solution for Next-Generation Spectrum Situational Awareness (NGS2AS), a Spectrum Access R&D Program solicited and awarded through the National Spectrum Consortium. COSMOS will incorporate a mix of low-cost unattended RF sensors, networked using industry-standard interfaces; versatile back-end server processing and storage of sensor data; spectrum data analytics, reporting and visualization; and incorporation of historical and projected frequency usage data from DoD systems for planning of training and test missions. This paper describes the architecture and design of the COSMOS system and its sensor and server subsystems.

      Curry, Elam; Borah, Deva K.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In generalized spatial modulation (GSM), information is conveyed both by the indices of multiple activated antennas and the modulation symbols they transmit. GSM includes generalized space shift keying (GSSK) and spatial modulation (SM) as special cases. In a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with correlated antennas, a large number of possible GSM symbol sets exists, and the use of a particular set affects the error performance. This problem has been addressed recently for visible light communication systems using an iterative combinatorial symbol search algorithm. This paper investigates the adaptation of the this iterative algorithm for GSM symbol design in MIMO radio frequency systems. Several approaches to calculating the inter-symbol distances are introduced. The performance of the designed GSM, GSSK, and SM symbol sets is compared. The effects of the Rician fading channel parameters and the spectral efficiency are investigated.

      Gonzalez, Juan F.; Elahi, Mirza; Castillo, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Corral, Pabel; Yasuda, Susumu; University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      With the upcoming AWS auctions by the FCC, the shared radio frequency spectrum is to be impacted in a way that its current users will have to maintain their operations with a reduced amount of spectrum. Mainly focusing on the L, S, and the lower C-bands, the 4G LTE and the White Sands Missile Range telemetry systems will be the primary affected users. With the implementation of a flexible software-defined radio testbed, it is possible to simulate both communication systems to qualify and quantify their behavior, while studying the interference between systems. The testbed allows the implementation of both systems with adjustable parameters with the purpose of mitigating interference and to produce a set of rules to obtain a clean telemetry signal and to reduce LTE interference, and vice-versa. The flexibility of this testbed is reflected in its ability to change the modulation types, power levels, frequency bands, and the ability to transmit in a closed-loop or wireless environment.

      Fecko, Mariusz; Kim, Heechang; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wong, Larry; Radke, Mark; Young, Tom; Grace, Thomas; Perspecta Labs; Bevilacqua Res. Corp.; USAF AFMC; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      IP-based telemetry systems such as iNET require extensive lab testing prior to fielding. Current iNET testbeds typically use several real radios and a mix of pre-recorded and live telemetry traffic. However, stress testing the iNET Radio Access Network (RAN) is hard to perform experimentally because of the limited number of available telemetry radios. To scale up the testing to a larger number of radios, we developed portable, low-cost VM-based telemetry radio simulators that interact with the iNET Link Manager (LM) and real radios to provide additional (emulated) links and queue depth reports. This approach makes it possible to establish the upper limit on the numbers of Test Articles that the LM can handle under various conditions. It also allows for fast reconfiguration of the number and set-up of simulated radios to test out specific use cases. The simulated radios free up real radios for off-site tests while preserving the ability for the continuous testing of LM features until real radios can be reclaimed. The developed testbed is portable owing to its lightweight set-up on the low-cost mac-mini computers. This makes it easy to use simulated radios also in off-site testbeds and field experiments.

      Prabhu, M.; Sinha, Prateek Kumar; Ghosh, Sayantan; Aeronautical Development Agency, National Flight Test Centre (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This Paper is intended to assess the handling quality of LCA-Tejas during air to air attack mission. In this paper handling quality of LCA in air-to-air attack mode is being assessed using image processing techniques. As a part of flight test program of LCA Tejas we have presented a methodology to assess the handling quality of LCA by detecting the target aircraft in every frame of the HUD video of the chase aircraft during an air-to-air attack mission. Based on the detection of the aircraft in every frame of the HUD video, percentage of time the aircraft is being targeted during a given test point is arrived at. This percentage is an indicator of the handling quality of the aircraft and is used to assess the ease with which the pilot can aim at the enemy aircraft while in close combat.

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) storage interface takes advantage of the internal parallel memory architecture found in many Solid-State Drives (SSDs) to provide high performance bandwidth. While relatively new, NVMe is gaining in popularity, but most vendors do not provide the features needed by telemetry applications. Recognizing that the standard does not define these features, several vendors have collaborated on a standard pin out for the 2.5” U.2 form factor that will provide these features such as write protection, data elimination, encryption, security, and authentication. By following this pin out, both system designers and SSD designers can benefit from this compatibility.

      Liaghati, Amir; Chang, Nick; Liaghati, Mahsa; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The telemetry system designed for the space vehicle requires to provide constant data output, including video and instrumentation to the telemetry/transmitter box through the mission. The video data captured from the space travel is always high demand for social media or mission purpose. However, the limited telemetry bandwidth for transmitting all the high quality video data to the ground station before the end of the mission drives the system level design challenges. There are operational flight instrumentation data which takes higher priority than the video data in the telemetry bandwidth allocation. A common design approach to output all the video data is to utilize the filled data or IDLE frame with many small size IPv4 datagrams of the video. As a result, there are some video data are dropped out by the ground received equipment due to an extended period of waiting time of the receiver to collect all the defragmented IPv4 datagrams and reconstruct to a large IPv4 packet. One solution to resolve this problem is to have the telemetry processing box handling the defragmented IPv4 datagram by holding fragmented IP datagrams and reconstruct a whole IP packet before sending it to the transmitter, and yet still maintaining the vehicle telemetry system performance. This paper is going to focus on this method by developing a system level simulation tool and analyze the performance of the vehicle.