Lipina, Jacob; Van Horn, Andrew; Schad, Judah; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper discusses the applications of a wireless telemetry module used to collect remote sensor data used in a teleoperated electric vehicle that competed in the 2018 Mars University Rover Challenge (URC). Remote wireless soil sensor pods, 100 cc in volume, equipped with a 32-bit microcontroller and embedded IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi were distributed at key locations to relay soil moisture and temperature values over a local repeater to a remote base station. Combined with a low power deep sleep mode (1.84 mW), two 2500 mAh lithium-ion polymer batteries, and voltage regulation electronics, such a device could periodically relay telemetry data for many years without recharge. The small size presents the opportunity for large scale production and distribution across exoplanetary surfaces for monitoring soil characteristics over time.

      Rozsa, Jace; Averett, Tyler; Killpack, Marc; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper describes the design and performance of the BYU mars rover with an emphasis on the wireless communications system and the transmission and reception of data vital to the performance of the rover.

      Teku, Noel; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In the High Frequency (HF) band, ranging from 3-30 MHz, long-range communications can be obtained by bouncing signals off the ionosphere without any significant infrastructure. However, the ionosphere changes rapidly, which can cause potentially harmful effects to the transmitted signal. This has motivated research into using adaptive equalization in this band to reverse these effects. However, a disadvantage of this technique is that based on the equalizer model and learning algorithm used, the error propagation may become significantly large, resulting in insufficient equalization to respond to these variations. To counter this, we investigate the usage of cognitive equalization, where an adaptive equalizer is equipped with the ability to change its structure (i.e. number of taps, step size, etc.) based on the current channel conditions and use probability of error to characterize its performance.

      Reinwald, Carl; Laulima Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The telemetry network revolution takes aeronautical flight testing from a broadcast-only paradigm to a TM-data-on-demand paradigm. This paper explores this paradigm shift, focusing on fundamental architectural changes enabled by incorporating telemetry networking technologies into a flight test system. Two concepts are presented to help understand the TM-data-on-demand paradigm: retrieving and processing recorded data from a test article during a mission and onboard dynamic data analysis and compression. An example flight test system with both SST and TmNS components provides a foundation to further explore the paradigm-shifting capabilities a telemetry network brings to flight test. In addition to TM-data-on-demand, the current static spectrum allocation methodology must also be replaced with a more agile, bandwidth-on-demand paradigm. When both TM-data-on-demand and bandwidth-on-demand capabilities have been realized, a new era of efficient flight testing will emerge.

      Rubio, Pedro; Alvarez, Jesus; AIRBUS DEFENCE & SPACE Flight Test (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Pan&Tilt directional antennas are present in every Airspace Test Center. They are used to receive telemetry data from the target in test (usually a rocket or an aircraft). Required telemetry range can be usually around 200nm which leaves no option but to use directional antennas (parabolic among others). The use of directional antennas greatly enhances the telemetry range by a factor of 1000. But it does it at a cost: directional accuracy. This kind of antenna has a narrow radiation pattern with its nominal gain at the center of the antenna dish. The main beam of the radiation pattern can be as narrow as 1.8 degrees (3db) in a C Band 2.4m parabolic antenna. An antenna has to be pointing its radiation pattern main lobe to the flying target with an error of less than the main lobe width in order not to degrade reception. A method has been implemented to properly calibrate the mechanical pointing vector to overlap with the radiation pattern main lobe. The calibration method presented in this paper allows a very precise calibration that can be performed locally with the aid of DGPS, RF Beacon, RF Spectrum Analyzer and software to manage the whole process.
    • Homing and Docking Algorithms for Circular Transmission and Receiver Arrays

      Radzicki, Vincent R.; Hua, Lee; Univ California Santa Barbara, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Homing and docking are two major components in the navigation of UAV’s and UUV’s. It involves the estimation of the six-element displacement vector based on the received signals, where three of the vector elements are associated with the translational displacement and the other three are for the rotation vector. The homing procedure is based on the estimation of the rotation vector with far-field approximations. In the docking range, the displacement estimation becomes more sensitive and critical. Far-field approximation-based algorithms are no longer effective, and high-precision techniques become important and need to be developed. In this paper, we examine and model the multi-dimensional displacement estimation for circular arrays. It allows us to accurately assess the performance as well as the limitation of the algorithms, with respect to various system parameters such as the size of the arrays, range distance, transmitted waveforms, and signal processing algorithms.

      Shea, Donald; Applied Antenna Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The coaxial waveguide antenna exhibits efficient multi-band operation in both tracking and nontracking applications. Radiation from coaxial waveguide operating in the TE1,1 mode produces an on-axis pattern similar to that of open-ended circular waveguide. A second mode, the TE2,1 mode, produces a difference pattern similar to that of a four arm spiral. An inner waveguide cavity operating in the TE1,1 mode and a concentric outer waveguide cavity simultaneously operating in the TE2,1 mode provides this antenna the ability to operate as a tracking feed. It is the intent of this paper to show how the coaxial waveguide antenna is ideally suited to meet many of today's antenna system requirements.
    • Application of Massive MIMO to CRTM

      Picha, Bob; Nokia Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
    • Progress in the Migration of Flight Test Analysis Routines to Python

      Bretz, John C.; Symvionics, Inc., IADS® Development Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In recent years, the Python language and its associated scientific libraries have been enjoying increasing acceptance. Scientific Python’s ability to replace MATLAB® for many disciplines makes its consideration as an alternative imperative. Python is popular in the engineering academic arena; many entry-level Engineers have experience coding engineering tools in Python already due to its open-source nature and status as a low-cost, low-risk alternative to MATLAB. The IADS Development Group (IDG) has been working on uses of Python and ways to allow users to write Python code from within IADS to help streamline their data processing efforts. This paper will document the progress made since 2015. Experience gained with some of the available Python libraries will be shared, and various tools that have been developed in Python by IADS programmers for their users will be introduced and described in detail. An attempt will also be made to assess the acceptance of Python in the Flight Test community.

      Bauer, William; Mann, Phillip; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Traditional Decom Systems usually require vendor specific data descriptions and provide vendor specific processing capabilities. Using a Software Decom allows the Decom hardware to be setup with a minimal configuration. The added capability of a UDP Multicast over Ethernet for the framed decommutated data allows for common Applications to perform the heavy lifting of Archiving, Real Time Display, and Distributed Processing. Any PC listening on the Local Area Network can access the telemetry data in real-time. This allows common real-time displays, archival tools and data forwarding applications to all run simultaneously.

      Phillips, Andrew J.; Creusere, Charles D.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper analyzes lossy data compression in the specific context of event-related potential (ERP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data. The lossy data compression techniques analyzed here are bit-rate quantization and frequency truncation using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Within the context of both methods it is demonstrated that ERP analysis waveforms yield significant data compression advantages over raw EEG data. It is found from the experimental results that for any given quantization error bound, utilization of ERP analysis requires approximately 3 fewer bits per EEG sample than normalized EEG data. Additionally, given any error bound for frequency truncation, at least 30% more total DCT coefficients can be discarded when utilizing ERP analysis instead of raw EEG data. The results hold significant implications for large-scale medical applications that rely on ERP analysis of EEG data.

      Willis, Jacob; Holtom, Jacob; Walton, Patrick; Smith, Jackson; Wallin, Nikolai; Long, David G.; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      An elegant telemetry payload, which transmits IMU, atmospheric, or light data during flight and deployment from a small model rocket, is presented. Data is received by a custom, mobile, handpointed ground station. The payload is patterned after a thumb-sized satellite, called a femtosat. Its design is optimized for ease of implementation. The femtosat system resulted from a grassroots, student peer-mentoring program developed at Brigham Young University.

      Hoffman, Richard W. III; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      As an increasing number of telemetry range architectures move toward a TMoIP-centric distribution system, operators are being confronted with another evolving requirement to ensure future IPv6 capability and a migration path from an IPv4-based system design. In order to facilitate a better understanding of some of the challenges and opportunities that IPv6 migration presents the modern range operator, this paper endeavors to present the past decade’s experience of range TMoIP implementation in the context of the emergent IPv6 technology and requirements. An overview of a myriad of concepts such as address space allocation, device-specific implementation differences, management protocol handling, and the differences between IPv4 and IPv6 versions, will provide opportunities to discuss the implications of these issues on the successful implementation of high-availability telemetry delivery systems in an IP-based environment.

      Feng, Can; Liu, Tao; Mao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Flight Test Center of the COMAC, Instrumentation Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The flight test telemetry real-time monitoring system is an indispensable part of civil aircraft flight test. With the current trend of network system, the traditional real-time monitoring model has difficulties in satisfying the requirements of increasing number of parameters, diversified types, large-scale system and high concurrency data streams. In response to the above issues, this paper proposes a monitoring system based on a three-tier architecture (data layer, business logic layer and presentation layer). The system uses TMoIP technology and Best Data Engine (BDE) to complete the selection of the best data source of multi-site flight test data streams. At the same time, the use of portability and rapid integration enables hundreds of terminals to work simultaneously. The system has been used successfully in China’s developing large civil aircraft C919 flight test program. The preparation time of the system has been greatly reduced, and the system performs stably.

      Hudgins, Gene; Secondline, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Often, TM requires operators on location with receive system(s) or at a remote console (with a remote antenna control unit), resulting in TDY for operators and possibly a shortage of operators to support all scheduled operations. A remote-control capability could eliminate existing personnel requirements at both the local system antenna site as well as the control facility, greatly reducing operational costs. TENA provides for real-time system interoperability, as well as interfacing existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations; fostering reuse of range assets and future software systems. JMETC is a distributed, LVC capability using a hybrid network solution for all classifications and cyber. TENA and JMETC allow for the most efficient use of current and future TM range resources via range resource integration, critical to validate system performance in a highly cost-effective manner.

      Cook, Paul; Aerospace Instrumentation Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Safety system implementation for Flight Termination involves the interconnection of specific signals from one (no redundancy) or both (redundancy) Flight Termination Receivers (FTR) to be telemetered to the ground for monitoring by the Range Safety Officer (RSO). The number of specific signals per FTR can be as high as 12 independent signals resulting in a large wire harness. The addition of an RS-232 programming interface on the radar transponder and telemetry transmitters adds weight and cost, takes up space and creates installation and maintenance issues. This paper discusses how switching to a serial wiring approach, such as a multidrop bus, will reduce wiring and allow for other features including more in-depth status information and quick system configuration reprogramming.

      Moskal, Jakub; Whittington, Austin; Kokar, Mitch; Abbott, Ben; VIStology, Inc.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      It is expected that XML-based languages for configuring telemetry systems like MDL and TMATS will eventually replace their non-XML predecessors. However, despite its numerous benefits, XML does not solve all the related problems. In particular, it cannot harness the complexity of constraints that may pertain to vendor hardware or to express system-level constraints that span across entire networks of devices. In this paper, we present TACL, a T&E extension to W3C Shape Constraints Language (SHACL) for formulating constraints on configurations represented in MDL and TMATS, independently of any configuration software. TACL introduces high-level components that help to form constraints close to the user’s intent and are less concerned with the low-level syntax details. It exhibits much better resilience to changes in the XML schemas than the languages that refer directly to the XML trees. A proof of concept TACL engine has been successfully developed and applied to MDL/TACL configurations.

      Ke, Zhou; Dalong, Yang; Shunqin, Xie; Xianglu, Li; Tao, Dai; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      It has been proved that multipath and timing-varying channels usually cause significant performance degradation, especially for low elevation scenario (0o~5o) in aeronautical telemetry. Channel models for various scenarios of the whole take-off process will be described in this paper. And we will present the experimental testing results to characterize the performance of a blind adaptive constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalizer applied for PCM-FM receiver in low elevation aeronautical telemetry scenarios, including parking scenario, taxiing scenario, take-off scenario and far-flight scenario. The test results showed that the equalizer improved the signal quality and achieved a remarkable bit error rate (BER) performance gain in the multipath fading scenarios.

      Schmalz, Daniel; Lennon, Joseph; Wang, Enkuang; Brothers, Timothy; Georgia Tech Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper examines the real-time implementation of equalization techniques. Telemetry RF channels are formidable due to the nature of desert test ranges – specifically due to multipath, changing path loss from environmental effects, and thermal distortions. This challenge is further complicated by the high velocity nature of test assets. Optimization of channel equalization in a real-time scenario is essential for high speed data telemetry over extended distances. This paper examines the mathematical background of equalization techniques and presents results based on FPGA implementations. The results were obtained from Vivado High Level Synthesis (HLS), which generates HDL from C/C++, as well as traditional VHDL coding. The contribution to the state of the art in this paper is the determination of the technological maturity of HLS versus traditional hand coding and the comparison of FPGA implementations of equalization algorithms against current platforms.
    • Remote Monitoring of Forces on Head for Detection of Traumatic Brain Injuries on Amusement Park Rides

      Camp, Laura; Marcellin, Stephanie; Rickel, Jodi; Rubenow, Tierny; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The ASTM F24 Committee pays substantial attention to the potential safety risks that roller coasters pose to riders. Although the G-forces exerted on rides are strictly controlled to prevent traumatic brain injury and other conditions, operators may wish to monitor the impact forces guests experience to determine if they need to be removed from the ride. We have designed a system to monitor data and relay the findings to the operators. To measure the effect roller coasters have on the brains of guests, we used a combination of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and impact force sensors are incorporated into a headpiece worn by the guest. During the ride, the sensor data is wirelessly transmitted to a base station where it can be monitored in real time by an operator. The system compares the gathered data with limits based on pre-existing research on traumatic brain injuries, and then alerts the operator to potential issues.