• 4G LTE AND TELEMETRY INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS ON A FLEXIBLE SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO TESTBED PLATFORM

      Gonzalez, Juan F.; Elahi, Mirza; Castillo, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Corral, Pabel; Yasuda, Susumu; University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      With the upcoming AWS auctions by the FCC, the shared radio frequency spectrum is to be impacted in a way that its current users will have to maintain their operations with a reduced amount of spectrum. Mainly focusing on the L, S, and the lower C-bands, the 4G LTE and the White Sands Missile Range telemetry systems will be the primary affected users. With the implementation of a flexible software-defined radio testbed, it is possible to simulate both communication systems to qualify and quantify their behavior, while studying the interference between systems. The testbed allows the implementation of both systems with adjustable parameters with the purpose of mitigating interference and to produce a set of rules to obtain a clean telemetry signal and to reduce LTE interference, and vice-versa. The flexibility of this testbed is reflected in its ability to change the modulation types, power levels, frequency bands, and the ability to transmit in a closed-loop or wireless environment.
    • ACCELERATING STANDARDS COMPLIANT TMNS RADIO IMPLEMENTATIONS

      Newton, Todd A.; Timme, M. Wayne; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      IRIG 106-17 defines interoperable two-way network telemetry interfaces for the wired as well as the dynamic TDMA air interface. While the air interface is based on the familiar SOQPSK-TG waveform, a TmNS-based radio contains a dynamic TDMA MAC regulated by Link Management through the use of RFNMs. This paper illustrates the TmNS-based radio aspects of the IRIG standard by describing our experience utilizing a two-track approach for accelerated TmNS compliant radio development. We have divided the architecture by engineering discipline lines (Communications vs. Computer Engineering). Doing so allowed us to accelerate the design, simulation, and test tasks while using a common code base across various transceiver implementations. Discussion includes a description of the software modules that provide TmNS interfaces for standards compliant radio functionality such as the TDMA MAC, RFNM processing, system management, and MDL configuration as well as system-level integration testing.
    • AEROBALLISTICS MODULAR MODALITIES (AMM): A MODULAR INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR PROJECTILES

      Barton, Aaron; Granitzki, Richard; Casella, Vincent; Stout, Christopher; Marshall, Eric; U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Munition telemetry engineers are posed with the challenge of developing ruggedized, precision instrumentation for various projectile bodies. Much of the hardware is custom, and engineers must address numerous concurrent electrical and mechanical integration issues within a limited schedule. The Aeroballistics Modular Modalities (AMM) system is a miniaturized, modular, open-architecture platform which provides a pre-made, tailorable system for developing projectile instrumentation electronics. The system excels at capturing projectile dynamics data, where the sensors can be chosen a-la-carte. The system is highly-customizable, and can be tailored to any instrumentation package.
    • AM-AM/AM-PM IN A C-BAND TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER USING 16-APSK

      Baxter, Jason; Perrins, Erik; DePardo, Dan; University of Kansas, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Due to the economic importance of spectrum allocation, modulation schemes traditionally used in telemetry are being replaced with more spectrally efficient schemes. Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (APSK) is one modulation scheme being considered for implementation in aeronautical telemetry. However, an APSK modulated signal is vulnerable to nonlinearities of a transmitter’s RF power amplifier (PA). Driving a PA into saturation produces two undesired nonlinearities: amplitude-to-amplitude modulation (AM-AM) and amplitude-to-phase modulation (AMPM). This paper characterizes the PA in a C-Band transmitter using a 16-APSK test signal in terms of these nonlinearities.
    • ANTENNA PRECISE POINTING CALIBRATION USING LOW COST DGPS

      Rubio, Pedro; Alvarez, Jesus; AIRBUS DEFENCE & SPACE Flight Test (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Pan&Tilt directional antennas are present in every Airspace Test Center. They are used to receive telemetry data from the target in test (usually a rocket or an aircraft). Required telemetry range can be usually around 200nm which leaves no option but to use directional antennas (parabolic among others). The use of directional antennas greatly enhances the telemetry range by a factor of 1000. But it does it at a cost: directional accuracy. This kind of antenna has a narrow radiation pattern with its nominal gain at the center of the antenna dish. The main beam of the radiation pattern can be as narrow as 1.8 degrees (3db) in a C Band 2.4m parabolic antenna. An antenna has to be pointing its radiation pattern main lobe to the flying target with an error of less than the main lobe width in order not to degrade reception. A method has been implemented to properly calibrate the mechanical pointing vector to overlap with the radiation pattern main lobe. The calibration method presented in this paper allows a very precise calibration that can be performed locally with the aid of DGPS, RF Beacon, RF Spectrum Analyzer and software to manage the whole process.
    • Application of Massive MIMO to CRTM

      Picha, Bob; Nokia Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
    • ASSESSMENT OF HANDLING QUALITIES OF LIGHT COMBAT AIRCRAFT (LCA-TEJAS) IN AIR-TO-AIR ATTACK MODE BY ANALYSIS OF HEAD-UP DISPLAY (HUD) VIDEO OF THE CHASE AIRCRAFT

      Prabhu, M.; Sinha, Prateek Kumar; Ghosh, Sayantan; Aeronautical Development Agency, National Flight Test Centre (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This Paper is intended to assess the handling quality of LCA-Tejas during air to air attack mission. In this paper handling quality of LCA in air-to-air attack mode is being assessed using image processing techniques. As a part of flight test program of LCA Tejas we have presented a methodology to assess the handling quality of LCA by detecting the target aircraft in every frame of the HUD video of the chase aircraft during an air-to-air attack mission. Based on the detection of the aircraft in every frame of the HUD video, percentage of time the aircraft is being targeted during a given test point is arrived at. This percentage is an indicator of the handling quality of the aircraft and is used to assess the ease with which the pilot can aim at the enemy aircraft while in close combat.
    • AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS

      Buxton, Jonas; Thomure, Logan; Downs, Roger; Bosanko, Garrett; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Robotic systems that operate indoors are often unable to rely on GPS, and dynamic environments prove difficult to navigate for robotic systems that rely on SLAM (Simultaneous Location and Mapping). Autonomous navigation without the use of GPS or SLAM techniques require a system to rely on more fundamental hardware and software concepts. The challenge is made even greater when the system is intended to fly, interact with moving targets, and avoid moving obstacles. This is the design criteria that our autonomous multirotor is adhering to for the International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper will describe the purpose behind each of our multirotor's sensors, such as LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) systems and Optical Flow sensors, that enable it to accurately interact with its environment without SLAM techniques, as well as the multirotor's onboard software that powers its autonomous capabilities.
    • BLIND ADAPTIVE EQUALIZER FOR MULTIPATH ENVIRONMENT IN LOW ELEVATION AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

      Ke, Zhou; Dalong, Yang; Shunqin, Xie; Xianglu, Li; Tao, Dai; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      It has been proved that multipath and timing-varying channels usually cause significant performance degradation, especially for low elevation scenario (0o~5o) in aeronautical telemetry. Channel models for various scenarios of the whole take-off process will be described in this paper. And we will present the experimental testing results to characterize the performance of a blind adaptive constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalizer applied for PCM-FM receiver in low elevation aeronautical telemetry scenarios, including parking scenario, taxiing scenario, take-off scenario and far-flight scenario. The test results showed that the equalizer improved the signal quality and achieved a remarkable bit error rate (BER) performance gain in the multipath fading scenarios.
    • BSS with Heterogeneous Ethernet Sources

      MALIVERNEY, J.; NEXEYA Telemetry Skill Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Nowadays, Telemetry Ground Station over a Range are all connected through Ethernet. Telemetry data can be dispatched from that layer to the Main Control Room. Nevertheless, Ethernet Protocols are so opened that the data transmitted can be heterogeneous (Throughput Ch10, Unpacked /Packed Synchronized data, PCM over Ethernet…). This paper describes an architecture based on a three layers software (Proprietary Layer, Software Frame Sync, and BSS) to manage BSS with these heterogeneous Ethernet sources. The assets (Test Range flexibility, low cost, easy upgrade) & the backwards (Encrypted data mismatch) with practical cases are also described.
    • BUILDING A FULLY CUSTOMIZABLE WINDOWS C# SOFTWARE CLIENT TO DISPLAY TELEMETRY FROM A REAL-TIME SOFT DECOM AND DISTRIBUTION SERVER

      Burns, Steven F.; Raytheon Missile Systems, Systems Test Directorate Integration and Verification Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Once the telemetry is de-commutated by the real-time Soft Decom and Distribution Server, it will need a client to display the engineered values in real-time. To display the engineered values, the Client must connect to the real-time Soft Decom and Distribution Server using the Server’s message based subscription process. In addition, to be fully customizable, the Client needs to allow the user to select specific telemetry parameters and build displays to view the parameters. The RttmClient is a fully customizable real-time Windows client built using C#, Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Telerik Controls for WPF and NetMQ (C# lightweight messaging library). It is capable of displaying hundreds of real-time parameters in several displays. The parameters are displayed using different controls (widgets) including Numeric, Indicator (light), Gauge, Strip Chart, Table, Container and Text.
    • BYU MARS ROVER AT THE 2018 UNIVERSITY ROVER CHALLENGE

      Rozsa, Jace; Averett, Tyler; Killpack, Marc; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper describes the design and performance of the BYU mars rover with an emphasis on the wireless communications system and the transmission and reception of data vital to the performance of the rover.
    • Can Homomorphic Encryption Reduce the Security Risks in Telemetry Post Processing Environments?

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Perspecta Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Homomorphic encryption [1, 2] is a branch of cryptography in which data transformation operations can be performed on already encrypted data—promising better protection of data as the data no longer needs to be decrypted in order for specific analysis operations to be performed. Thus, better security is achieved by absolutely minimizing the amount of time sensitive data is potentially exposed. After reviewing homomorphic encryption principles, system level architectures will be presented discussing where homomorphic encryption may best fit in the generally accepted data security taxonomy involving disk, file, and application encryption. Emphasis will be placed on application to telemetry post-processing environments.
    • CENTRALIZED REAL TIME MONITORING SYSTEM BASED ON MULTILAYER NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR FLIGHT TEST TELEMETRY

      Feng, Can; Liu, Tao; Mao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Flight Test Center of the COMAC, Instrumentation Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The flight test telemetry real-time monitoring system is an indispensable part of civil aircraft flight test. With the current trend of network system, the traditional real-time monitoring model has difficulties in satisfying the requirements of increasing number of parameters, diversified types, large-scale system and high concurrency data streams. In response to the above issues, this paper proposes a monitoring system based on a three-tier architecture (data layer, business logic layer and presentation layer). The system uses TMoIP technology and Best Data Engine (BDE) to complete the selection of the best data source of multi-site flight test data streams. At the same time, the use of portability and rapid integration enables hundreds of terminals to work simultaneously. The system has been used successfully in China’s developing large civil aircraft C919 flight test program. The preparation time of the system has been greatly reduced, and the system performs stably.
    • CFO Estimation by Exploiting Channel Sparsity in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Afran, Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we explore a carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation scheme with sparsity-constraint (SC) on the aeronautical telemetry channels. This SC CFO estimator is implemented in two steps. In the first step, channel support is recovered by combining compressed sensing techniques with the CFO estimate based on the non-sparsity constraint (NSC) on the channel. Next we use the estimated channel support to derive the SC CFO estimator. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of the SC CFO estimator against the existing NSC CFO estimators using shaped offset QPSK version TG (SOQPSK-TG) modulated iNET-formatted data over an aeronautical test channel.
    • A CHANNEL SPACING ANALYSIS FOR CODED-APSK

      Pathak, Sumant; Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK) is an attractive alternative to continuous phase non-linear modulations in telemetry systems with its low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Since the PAPR is not exactly unity, we use APSK paired with Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes to compensate for loss in power efficiency due to the power amplifier operating with backoff. In this paper we consider the adjacent channel spacing of a system with multiple configurations using LDPC coded APSK and SOQPSK-TG. We consider different combinations of 16 and 32-APSK and SOQPSK-TG and find the minimum spacing in frequency between the respective waveforms that does not distort system performance.
    • THE COAXIAL WAVEGUIDE ANTENNA - A NATURAL DESIGN FOR MULTI-BAND FEED APPLICATIONS

      Shea, Donald; Applied Antenna Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The coaxial waveguide antenna exhibits efficient multi-band operation in both tracking and nontracking applications. Radiation from coaxial waveguide operating in the TE1,1 mode produces an on-axis pattern similar to that of open-ended circular waveguide. A second mode, the TE2,1 mode, produces a difference pattern similar to that of a four arm spiral. An inner waveguide cavity operating in the TE1,1 mode and a concentric outer waveguide cavity simultaneously operating in the TE2,1 mode provides this antenna the ability to operate as a tracking feed. It is the intent of this paper to show how the coaxial waveguide antenna is ideally suited to meet many of today's antenna system requirements.
    • CODE-AIDED TIMING SYNCHRONIZATION FOR MULTI-H CPM AT LOW SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO

      Shunqin, Xie; Ke, Zhou; Dahai, Chen; Xianglu, Li; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to solve the problem of timing synchronization at low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) for Multi-h CPM, a code-aided early-late loop(ELL) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is based on the iterative detection of serially concatenated Multi-h CPM with convolutional codes. The ELL timing estimator based on sequence detection is extended to the maximum-logarithmic maximum a posteriori (max-log MAP) detection. By using the information updated by iterative detection, the timing accuracy of multi-h CPM can be improved at low SNR. The simulation results show that, even when the bit signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/No) is as low as 3dB~5dB, the estimating variance of the proposed synchronization can be close to the Cramer Rao bound(MCRB) of ARTM CPM. After this timing synchronizing, the detection performance of the 10th iteration is only 0.03dB loss compared with the performance with ideal synchronization.
    • CODEBOOK BASED TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE GEOLOCATION

      Yang, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Dylan; Nakamura, Drew; Hua, Lee; Univ California Santa Barbara, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Conventional geolocation techniques were developed based on time-delay estimation, followed by computation of the angle of arrival (AOA). The AOA computation is the main cause of latency, which significantly degrades the feasibility of real-time bearing-angle detection. The computation also adds to hardware complexity and power consumption, which is critical for small, light-weight and mobile devices. This paper presents a codebook based approach to geolocation. The delay profiles are mapped to a precomputed codebook to match the optimal estimation of the geolocation. This simplifies the computation procedure and makes real-time computing feasible. It utilizes limited memory capacity to reduce latency and hardware complexity. This approach also allows us to accurately assess the resolving capability. In addition, it reduces computation for joint estimation with multiple receiver units, especially in mobile format.
    • COGNITIVE EQUALIZATION FOR HF CHANNELS

      Teku, Noel; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In the High Frequency (HF) band, ranging from 3-30 MHz, long-range communications can be obtained by bouncing signals off the ionosphere without any significant infrastructure. However, the ionosphere changes rapidly, which can cause potentially harmful effects to the transmitted signal. This has motivated research into using adaptive equalization in this band to reverse these effects. However, a disadvantage of this technique is that based on the equalizer model and learning algorithm used, the error propagation may become significantly large, resulting in insufficient equalization to respond to these variations. To counter this, we investigate the usage of cognitive equalization, where an adaptive equalizer is equipped with the ability to change its structure (i.e. number of taps, step size, etc.) based on the current channel conditions and use probability of error to characterize its performance.