• Can Homomorphic Encryption Reduce the Security Risks in Telemetry Post Processing Environments?

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Perspecta Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Homomorphic encryption [1, 2] is a branch of cryptography in which data transformation operations can be performed on already encrypted data—promising better protection of data as the data no longer needs to be decrypted in order for specific analysis operations to be performed. Thus, better security is achieved by absolutely minimizing the amount of time sensitive data is potentially exposed. After reviewing homomorphic encryption principles, system level architectures will be presented discussing where homomorphic encryption may best fit in the generally accepted data security taxonomy involving disk, file, and application encryption. Emphasis will be placed on application to telemetry post-processing environments.

      Feng, Can; Liu, Tao; Mao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Flight Test Center of the COMAC, Instrumentation Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The flight test telemetry real-time monitoring system is an indispensable part of civil aircraft flight test. With the current trend of network system, the traditional real-time monitoring model has difficulties in satisfying the requirements of increasing number of parameters, diversified types, large-scale system and high concurrency data streams. In response to the above issues, this paper proposes a monitoring system based on a three-tier architecture (data layer, business logic layer and presentation layer). The system uses TMoIP technology and Best Data Engine (BDE) to complete the selection of the best data source of multi-site flight test data streams. At the same time, the use of portability and rapid integration enables hundreds of terminals to work simultaneously. The system has been used successfully in China’s developing large civil aircraft C919 flight test program. The preparation time of the system has been greatly reduced, and the system performs stably.
    • CFO Estimation by Exploiting Channel Sparsity in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Afran, Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we explore a carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation scheme with sparsity-constraint (SC) on the aeronautical telemetry channels. This SC CFO estimator is implemented in two steps. In the first step, channel support is recovered by combining compressed sensing techniques with the CFO estimate based on the non-sparsity constraint (NSC) on the channel. Next we use the estimated channel support to derive the SC CFO estimator. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of the SC CFO estimator against the existing NSC CFO estimators using shaped offset QPSK version TG (SOQPSK-TG) modulated iNET-formatted data over an aeronautical test channel.

      Pathak, Sumant; Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK) is an attractive alternative to continuous phase non-linear modulations in telemetry systems with its low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Since the PAPR is not exactly unity, we use APSK paired with Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes to compensate for loss in power efficiency due to the power amplifier operating with backoff. In this paper we consider the adjacent channel spacing of a system with multiple configurations using LDPC coded APSK and SOQPSK-TG. We consider different combinations of 16 and 32-APSK and SOQPSK-TG and find the minimum spacing in frequency between the respective waveforms that does not distort system performance.

      Shea, Donald; Applied Antenna Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The coaxial waveguide antenna exhibits efficient multi-band operation in both tracking and nontracking applications. Radiation from coaxial waveguide operating in the TE1,1 mode produces an on-axis pattern similar to that of open-ended circular waveguide. A second mode, the TE2,1 mode, produces a difference pattern similar to that of a four arm spiral. An inner waveguide cavity operating in the TE1,1 mode and a concentric outer waveguide cavity simultaneously operating in the TE2,1 mode provides this antenna the ability to operate as a tracking feed. It is the intent of this paper to show how the coaxial waveguide antenna is ideally suited to meet many of today's antenna system requirements.

      Shunqin, Xie; Ke, Zhou; Dahai, Chen; Xianglu, Li; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to solve the problem of timing synchronization at low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) for Multi-h CPM, a code-aided early-late loop(ELL) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is based on the iterative detection of serially concatenated Multi-h CPM with convolutional codes. The ELL timing estimator based on sequence detection is extended to the maximum-logarithmic maximum a posteriori (max-log MAP) detection. By using the information updated by iterative detection, the timing accuracy of multi-h CPM can be improved at low SNR. The simulation results show that, even when the bit signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/No) is as low as 3dB~5dB, the estimating variance of the proposed synchronization can be close to the Cramer Rao bound(MCRB) of ARTM CPM. After this timing synchronizing, the detection performance of the 10th iteration is only 0.03dB loss compared with the performance with ideal synchronization.

      Yang, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Dylan; Nakamura, Drew; Hua, Lee; Univ California Santa Barbara, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Conventional geolocation techniques were developed based on time-delay estimation, followed by computation of the angle of arrival (AOA). The AOA computation is the main cause of latency, which significantly degrades the feasibility of real-time bearing-angle detection. The computation also adds to hardware complexity and power consumption, which is critical for small, light-weight and mobile devices. This paper presents a codebook based approach to geolocation. The delay profiles are mapped to a precomputed codebook to match the optimal estimation of the geolocation. This simplifies the computation procedure and makes real-time computing feasible. It utilizes limited memory capacity to reduce latency and hardware complexity. This approach also allows us to accurately assess the resolving capability. In addition, it reduces computation for joint estimation with multiple receiver units, especially in mobile format.

      Teku, Noel; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In the High Frequency (HF) band, ranging from 3-30 MHz, long-range communications can be obtained by bouncing signals off the ionosphere without any significant infrastructure. However, the ionosphere changes rapidly, which can cause potentially harmful effects to the transmitted signal. This has motivated research into using adaptive equalization in this band to reverse these effects. However, a disadvantage of this technique is that based on the equalizer model and learning algorithm used, the error propagation may become significantly large, resulting in insufficient equalization to respond to these variations. To counter this, we investigate the usage of cognitive equalization, where an adaptive equalizer is equipped with the ability to change its structure (i.e. number of taps, step size, etc.) based on the current channel conditions and use probability of error to characterize its performance.

      Bauer, William; Mann, Phillip; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Traditional Decom Systems usually require vendor specific data descriptions and provide vendor specific processing capabilities. Using a Software Decom allows the Decom hardware to be setup with a minimal configuration. The added capability of a UDP Multicast over Ethernet for the framed decommutated data allows for common Applications to perform the heavy lifting of Archiving, Real Time Display, and Distributed Processing. Any PC listening on the Local Area Network can access the telemetry data in real-time. This allows common real-time displays, archival tools and data forwarding applications to all run simultaneously.

      Case, Anna; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Several design iterations of communication systems at the Missouri S&T Satellite Research Team reveal that software defined radios (SDR) are viable for low cost, fully functional, and reliable communication systems. Recent licensing policy changes have impacted a number of CubeSat missions, prompting the necessity of bandwidth efficient communication. In searching for solutions to minimize spectral congestion, these systems need to minimize power consumption and maximize data throughput. The flexibility that SDRs provide allows for dynamic link control in orbit. Once completed, the code used to implement this system will be open-sourced for future missions use.

      Schmalz, Daniel; Lennon, Joseph; Wang, Enkuang; Brothers, Timothy; Georgia Tech Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper examines the real-time implementation of equalization techniques. Telemetry RF channels are formidable due to the nature of desert test ranges – specifically due to multipath, changing path loss from environmental effects, and thermal distortions. This challenge is further complicated by the high velocity nature of test assets. Optimization of channel equalization in a real-time scenario is essential for high speed data telemetry over extended distances. This paper examines the mathematical background of equalization techniques and presents results based on FPGA implementations. The results were obtained from Vivado High Level Synthesis (HLS), which generates HDL from C/C++, as well as traditional VHDL coding. The contribution to the state of the art in this paper is the determination of the technological maturity of HLS versus traditional hand coding and the comparison of FPGA implementations of equalization algorithms against current platforms.

      Ziegler, Robert; Triolo, Anthony; Samtani, Sunil; Weaver, Joshua; Perspecta Labs; US Naval Sea Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Comprehensive Spectrum Monitoring System (COSMOS) is Perspecta Labs’ solution for Next-Generation Spectrum Situational Awareness (NGS2AS), a Spectrum Access R&D Program solicited and awarded through the National Spectrum Consortium. COSMOS will incorporate a mix of low-cost unattended RF sensors, networked using industry-standard interfaces; versatile back-end server processing and storage of sensor data; spectrum data analytics, reporting and visualization; and incorporation of historical and projected frequency usage data from DoD systems for planning of training and test missions. This paper describes the architecture and design of the COSMOS system and its sensor and server subsystems.

      Hightower, Paul; Instrumentation Technology Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Each 1080 video frame requires 6.2 MB of storage; archiving a one minute clip requires 22GB. Playing a 1080p/60 video requires sustained rates of 400 MB/S. These storage and transport parameters pose major technical and cost hurdles. Even the latest technologies would only support one channel of such video. Content creators needed a solution to these road blocks to enable them to deliver video to viewers and monetize efforts. Over the past 30 years a pyramid of techniques have been developed to provide ever increasing compression efficiency. These techniques make it possible to deliver movies on Blu-ray disks, over Wi-Fi and Ethernet. However, there are tradeoffs. Compression introduces latency, image errors and resolution loss. The exact effect may be different from image to image. BER may result the total loss of strings of frames. We will explore these effects and how they impact test quality and reduce the benefits that HD cameras/lenses bring telemetry.
    • Constraint Gain for Two Dimensional Magnetic Recording Channels

      Bahrami, Mohsen; Vasic, Bane; Marcellin, Michael; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we study performance gains of constrained codes in Two dimensional Magnetic Recording (TDMR) channels using the notion of constraint gain. We consider Voronoi based TDMR channels with realistic grain, bit, track and magnetic-head dimensions. Specifically, we investigate the constraint gain for two-dimensional no-isolated-bit constraint over Voronoi based TDMR channels. We focus on schemes that employ the generalized belief propagation algorithm for obtaining information rate estimates for TDMR channels.
    • CRTM C-band Lab Test Results

      Picha, Bob; Nokia Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)

      Whittington, Austin; Ibaroudene, Hakima; Abbott, Ben; Yao, Di; Hite, Joseph; Bapty, Theodore; Moskal, Jakub; Neumann, Michael; Southwest Research Institute; Vanderbilt University; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      As technologies like network-based telemetry and standardized configuration languages begin to see wider adoption within the flight test community, new techniques exploring the new possibilities they provide are also developed. This paper reviews a subset of these techniques, including successful use in commercial flight test, focusing on the concepts of constraints and their application in the field, specifically their use in helping users to create correct-by-construction configurations. We then explore ongoing efforts with the Air Force and DARPA to extend these techniques into constraint satisfaction and real-time adaptation, providing the ability to create and adapt configurations to match (possibly changing) test requirements.

      Price, Nathan; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science & Technology, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Prior work has shown that software defined radio has the ability to reduce the size, weight, power and cost of telemetry and avionics. We propose a virtualized transceiver architecture that supports multiple concurrent software defined radio (SDR) applications running on shared SDR hardware. This paper applies the concept of virtual transceivers to SDR for telemetry and avionics. The proposed design allows for transceivers to be shared between different SDR applications by taking advantage of time separation and frequency adjacency. This paper addresses the system layout, hardware selection, and software organization. Improvements include a scalable and considerations for both redundancy and upgradability.
    • The Design and Application of C-band Base Station Based Multi-target Telemetry Network System

      Shiwei, Guo; Zhongjie, Wang; Xin, Zhang; Zhaohui, Huo; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      A C-band base station based multi-target telemetry network system for flight test is designed in this paper. The requirements of multi-target transmission are realized by TDMA and TDD technology. And the transmission rate of up to 50 Mbps is provided by the high efficient modulation method. An integrated air-to-ground telemetry network is built with C-band wireless two-way link. The telemetry signals of super large airspace are covered seamlessly through multiple base stations, therefore the shortage of current telemetry is solved, and the demand of multi-target and mass date transmission for flight test is satisfied. The development of the system provides technical support for the high speed data transmission of the flight test, which will lay a foundation for the construction of integrated air-to-ground test and the test network system.

      Guarino de Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo; Kusumoto, André Yoshimi; Roberto, Leandro; Zanette, João Vitor; Oliveira Leite, Nelson Paiva; Araujo Lopes, Cristina Moniz; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA); Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAV); et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Of all the stages of the process of store separation, the flight test stage is the most expensive stage. Thus, the smaller the number of flights, the better. One step prior to in-flight tests is the pitch drop. In this stage, the use of a computer vision solution can assist engineers during the test to determine whether the test point was safe or not. When using cameras in any activity that requires accuracy in the results, it is necessary to perform the calibration of the optical system used in the tests. The IPEV has developed a solution that (1) the construction of a calibration field so that camera calibrations can be performed using a single frame; (2) a method for carrying out pitch drop test; (3) and an application that uses computational vision to process data from high-acquisition-rate cameras and generate the results in 6DoF. The development and validation of the solution are described in this work.

      Fung, Eddie; Johnson, William H.; Kogiantis, Achilles; Rege, Kiran M.; Perspecta Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      High Doppler shifts between base stations and test articles (TAs) pose the biggest problem to Aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) implemented on a wireless LTE network. Our solution to this problem includes a Doppler estimator/compensator (DEC) that proactively shifts the LTE uplink (LTE UL) signals transmitted by the TA. We have designed the DEC in the form of an applique’ that can be inserted between the transmit/receive ports of a COTS TA transceiver and its antenna(s). The DEC estimates the Doppler shift using the LTE UL signals transmitted by the TA, which carry a frequency offset that includes the Doppler shift. This not only provides a clean, noise- and fading-free signal for Doppler estimation, but also allows us to do away with the need to know the identity of the base station with which the TA is communicating. In this paper, we provide an architectural description of the DEC and an outline of the algorithms that have been incorporated into it. At present, a laboratory prototype of the DEC has been developed using Universal Software Radio Peripherals (USRPs), coupled with a Linux PC to carry out most of the computations. An FPGA-based implementation is currently under development.