Kovach, Bob; IPtec, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The efforts to implement the distribution of real-time information streams via IP packet-based networks in the range environment have largely utilized the recovery of timing information via implicit techniques, such as adaptive clock recovery. These techniques allowed the alignment of streams with disparate delay characteristics to accuracies on the order of 1 millisecond. With the availability of techniques to distribute high accuracy timing information to network nodes, the capability to recover and align real time streams on the order of microseconds is possible. This paper will focus on a methodology to perform precision stream alignment that utilizes timestamping and the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) as a clock source. IEEE 1588 is currently utilized in cellular networks to deliver synchronization to remote network elements, providing superior accuracy and stability. The paper will review expectations for performance and discuss considerations in system level design to optimize timing distribution performance and ultimately stream alignment accuracy. System elements and their effect on performance will be identified and characterized. Finally, a TM Gateway implementation example which utilizes PTP coupled with hardwareassisted timestamping techniques to align recovered TM streams to a high degree of accuracy will be described. Real world results for clock accuracy and expectations for stream alignment accuracy will be shared.

      Thom, Gary A.; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Today’s telemetry ground stations are migrating from traditional serial PCM data distribution to Telemetry over IP architectures. The Range Commanders Council has published IRIG 218-10 TELEMETRY TRANSMISSION OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (TMoIP) STANDARD, which attempts to standardize PCM distribution over IP networks and is currently working on a revision. Ranges have begun investigating new TMoIP systems. This paper attempts to facilitate this migration by discussing the TMoIP, networking and architectural concepts that need to be considered when deploying a TMoIP system. The paper draws on the lessons learned over the previous 10 years of designing, installing, troubleshooting and optimizing telemetry data distribution over IP networks. It discusses the critical component and architectural decisions to be made and some of the pitfalls to be avoided.
    • Network Scheduling Algorithm with Efficient Backfill Process in the iNET

      Roh, Dongseok; Oh, Jonghun; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      One of the major advantage of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system is data backfill. In the iNET, network data server requests signal retransmission from the on-board recorder when the signal dropout is detected, and data is retransmitted which leads successful reception. If there are numerous test articles (TA), however, multiple backfill process for signal request and data retransmission can cause undesirable capacity waste. This paper describes the improved backfill process in iNET with multiple TAs. This process includes grouping and scheduling algorithm within TAs, and the orthogonal and non-orthogonal transmission. The system model and results are analyzed by simulation.
    • A New Network Telemetry technique In Aviatic Flight Tests

      Xingguo, Zhang; Hong, Li; Guojin, Peng; Zanchao, Wang; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to address the issue of insufficient telemetry frequencies in flight tests, a telemetry transmission solution is proposed to transmit the principal parameters and HUD video for multiple aircrafts based on bi-directional wireless network. All the key points including the wireless transmission architecture for airborne and ground integration, network resources management, and dynamic configuration of airborne test system are illustrated. The research result has been verified in flight tests, and the experimental methods and results are presented as well.

      Harris, Jonathan; Kopp, Brian; University of North Florida, Electrical Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Data Collection System (DCS) receives environmental data from approximately 28,000 Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) that transmit up to the GOES spacecraft in the Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) band between 401.7 Mega-Hertz (MHz) and 402.1 MHz. The radio spectrum around 402 MHz is also available to commercial satellite companies and several have recently begun using the spectrum. There are questions regarding whether the shared use of the spectrum by small satellites may pose an interference problem to the NOAA DCS program and if so how such issues might be mitigated. This paper discusses some of the pertinent technical issues regarding the performance of the DCS system, reviews some of the known commercial satellite systems sharing the spectrum and briefly discusses some of the issues that spectrum sharing creates.

      Cook, Paul; Aerospace Instrumentation Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Safety system implementation for Flight Termination involves the interconnection of specific signals from one (no redundancy) or both (redundancy) Flight Termination Receivers (FTR) to be telemetered to the ground for monitoring by the Range Safety Officer (RSO). The number of specific signals per FTR can be as high as 12 independent signals resulting in a large wire harness. The addition of an RS-232 programming interface on the radar transponder and telemetry transmitters adds weight and cost, takes up space and creates installation and maintenance issues. This paper discusses how switching to a serial wiring approach, such as a multidrop bus, will reduce wiring and allow for other features including more in-depth status information and quick system configuration reprogramming.

      Ibaroudene, Hakima; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Rather than classic data bus-based acquisition and extraction, we can use cockpit video cameras to extract measurements. These technologies can reduce installation costs and complexity and minimize aircraft modification to obtain parameter data and may be sufficient for some quickturn, limited-scope flight test operations. This paper explores the challenges and possible approaches for extracting measurements from video imagery of cockpit displays and provides an in-depth case study of a portable cockpit display video measurement system that reads digital measurements from aircraft instrument panels.

      Uetrecht, Jim; Quasonix, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      A Pre-Detection Maximal-Ratio Combiner (Pre-D MRC) provides optimal performance in the face of additive noise but sub-optimal and even potentially degraded performance in the face of other common channel impairments such as multipath. Using Data Quality Metric (DQM) information from the Pre-D MRC and its two input channels, a Best-Channel Selector (BCS) can correlate the three demodulated data streams and select the best available data on a bit-by-bit basis. Thus, the BCS can produce a single receiver output with optimal performance in additive noise and superior performance across all types of channel impairment – fulfilling the promise the Pre-D MRC cannot always keep. Further, since the BCS need only accommodate small and predictable latency differences between its inputs, its local performance may exceed that of an external source selector designed to handle seconds of delay between channels. This paper describes the BCS and presents performance results from several test scenarios.

      Arabian, Farah; Rice, Michael; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      16APSK is a candidate modulation for aeronautical telemetry because it has better spectral efficiency than SOQPSK-TG, but requires a linear RF power amplifier. This paper investigates the BER performance of filter-based equalizers for 16APSK operating over multipath channels measured at Edwards AFB. The results show that decision feedback equalizers outperform the other equalizers and are capable of providing excellent multipath mitigation.

      Xingwen, Ding; Hongyu, Chang; Ming, Chen; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      It is well known that partial response CPM signals usually have better spectral efficiency than full response CPM signals, and the performance of CPM signals can be further improved by combining with multi-h phase codes. According to IRIG 106, the ARTM CPM waveform, a kind of multi-h partial response continuous phase modulation (CPM), has almost three times the spectral efficiency of PCM/FM and approximately the same detection efficiency of PCM/FM. This paper presents other optimum parameter combinations for multi-h partial response CPM, by taking the minimum Euclidean distance, spectral efficiency and detection complexity as judgment criterions.

      Ito, Sei; Honda, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Aoyama, Daiki; Abe, Katsuhiko; Morimatsu, Takafumi; Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) has been authorized to use S-band IP Transceivers since 2014 in Japan. We have been involved with tests for two-way high-capacity communication. We presented the results of the performance test using a helicopter at ITC2016. We continued further performance test in 2017-2018.

      Harrison, Willie K.; Nelson, Kaela; Dye, Scott; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we investigate the application of physical-layer security coding for next generation aeronautical telemetry communication systems. The coding we refer to is similar to error-control coding, but the codes are deployed for two purposes: to achieve reliable communications, and to achieve secure communications. We consider a single eavesdropper on an air-to-ground aeronautical telemetry link, and show how the overhead measured by the rate of the code can be used to keep secrets from eavesdroppers over noisy channels, rather than recover from channel errors. We show simple examples that work over erasure channels to achieve a security constraint, and then consider approaches to more practical coding constructions for Gaussian channels that satisfies both reliability and security constraints on the network.

      Backhaus, Christopher; Boyer, Kyle; Elmadani, Safwan; Houston, Paul; Ruckle, Sean; Marcellin, Michael; Univ Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The University of Arizona Baja Racing Team competes annually in a grueling off-road racing competition designed to test the durability of each team’s vehicle. For the last several years, we have been creating and improving upon a telemetry system for the car in order to provide live data and analysis to the driver and pit crew during races, as well as to inform the design of future vehicles. This year, we have created a portable system consisting of a high-performance computer running a custom software package in a ruggedized case with a variety of networking gear. The software is built around a modular, multithreaded analysis engine and can perform live and retrospective analysis on data received from multiple sources, the results of which can be displayed using the built-in GUI or accessed via web interface.

      Du, Xianyu; Zhou, Yi; Yi, Xiaoqian; Instrumentation Department, COMAC Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to cover the complete flight path of a large civil aircraft during its flight test missions, Telemetry-over-IP (TMoIP) systems have become a standard technique solution in COMAC Flight Test Center. In this paper, practical considerations in implementing the TMoIP systems using a satellite communication link will be discussed, along with the applicable satellite modem parameters. Based on the Command & Control Center located besides the Shanghai Pudong International Airport, several typical cities represent different directions and climatic conditions across the mainland of the country are analysed. Thanks to the high mobility and rapidly deployable satellite communication vehicle, and the rental of satellite time can be specified in contract at a reasonable price and scheduling can be coordinated a short time in advance, high-risk flight test subjects can be monitored and instructed at the head-quarter where more specialist can participate and better ground test and verification equipments can be arranged to support the missions.
    • Progress in the Migration of Flight Test Analysis Routines to Python

      Bretz, John C.; Symvionics, Inc., IADS® Development Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In recent years, the Python language and its associated scientific libraries have been enjoying increasing acceptance. Scientific Python’s ability to replace MATLAB® for many disciplines makes its consideration as an alternative imperative. Python is popular in the engineering academic arena; many entry-level Engineers have experience coding engineering tools in Python already due to its open-source nature and status as a low-cost, low-risk alternative to MATLAB. The IADS Development Group (IDG) has been working on uses of Python and ways to allow users to write Python code from within IADS to help streamline their data processing efforts. This paper will document the progress made since 2015. Experience gained with some of the available Python libraries will be shared, and various tools that have been developed in Python by IADS programmers for their users will be introduced and described in detail. An attempt will also be made to assess the acceptance of Python in the Flight Test community.

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) storage interface takes advantage of the internal parallel memory architecture found in many Solid-State Drives (SSDs) to provide high performance bandwidth. While relatively new, NVMe is gaining in popularity, but most vendors do not provide the features needed by telemetry applications. Recognizing that the standard does not define these features, several vendors have collaborated on a standard pin out for the 2.5” U.2 form factor that will provide these features such as write protection, data elimination, encryption, security, and authentication. By following this pin out, both system designers and SSD designers can benefit from this compatibility.

      Fansler, Aaron; Ampex Intelligent Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper reviews at a high level Ampex’s Black Lightning capability. The Black Lightning capability tool was developed to be the first cyber defensive tool specifically designed to work at the field device component level of a Control System (CS). BLACK LIGHTNING is a passive, real-time monitoring and detection tool designed and built specifically for control systems professionals. The BLACK LIGHTNING capability uses a patent pending detection algorithm, which scans SCADA specific protocols for any anomalous activity within the customer defined component thresholds. In doing this BLACK LIGHTNING is able to alerting operators of any abnormal activity for further investigation faster than anything currently on the market. One can look at the internals of an aircraft as multiple layers of control systems working together. As defined, “A control system is a collection of mechanical and electrical equipment that allows an aircraft to be flown with exceptional precision and reliability”. An aircraft has many control systems. These systems consist of fuel, heat, speed, altitude, hydraulics, navigation, communications, sensors, actuators, servos, multiple computers just to name a few as examples. At Ampex, we view a control system as what it is, a control system. The process(es) above that the control system(s) is transparent to us. If you protect the system and subsystems below the process then by default you will protect the process above regardless if it’s an industrial power plant, nuclear power plant, water facility, manufacturing plant or an aircraft. At Ampex we protect the process by monitoring and protecting the systems below.

      Liaghati, Amir; Chang, Nick; Liaghati, Mahsa; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The telemetry system designed for the space vehicle requires to provide constant data output, including video and instrumentation to the telemetry/transmitter box through the mission. The video data captured from the space travel is always high demand for social media or mission purpose. However, the limited telemetry bandwidth for transmitting all the high quality video data to the ground station before the end of the mission drives the system level design challenges. There are operational flight instrumentation data which takes higher priority than the video data in the telemetry bandwidth allocation. A common design approach to output all the video data is to utilize the filled data or IDLE frame with many small size IPv4 datagrams of the video. As a result, there are some video data are dropped out by the ground received equipment due to an extended period of waiting time of the receiver to collect all the defragmented IPv4 datagrams and reconstruct to a large IPv4 packet. One solution to resolve this problem is to have the telemetry processing box handling the defragmented IPv4 datagram by holding fragmented IP datagrams and reconstruct a whole IP packet before sending it to the transmitter, and yet still maintaining the vehicle telemetry system performance. This paper is going to focus on this method by developing a system level simulation tool and analyze the performance of the vehicle.

      Huang, Ruchang; Wei, Guobo; Wang, Zhongjie; Li, Panwen; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In the flight test, the matching compatibility of the fighter inlet and the engine is the key to the test flight of the engine performance quality. Especially at high incidence of high attack angle and over stall maneuver, the characteristics of the inlet are very important to the engine. The current traditional test scheme cannot real-time telemeter the inlet distortion signal.This paper aims at the problem by designing an embedded airborne real-time processing unit which can real-time calculate and telemetry of the inlet distortion signal. Then the results are displayed in the ground monitoring station by cloud image mode. So we can evaluate the matching performance of the inlet and engine during aircraft flight, and achieve the aim of prejudging the risk of inlet distortion.
    • Real-time Processing and Integrated Monitoring Technology for Telemetry Multi-channel Digital Video

      Yang, Zhe; Guo, Pingfan; Huo, Zhaohui; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In flight test telemetry digital video real-time monitoring, some technical problems about single function of the video playback software, needing a dedicated player software (poor extensibility) and lacking the necessary fault diagnosis methods are analyzed.Intelligent playback technology, component video playback plug-in, ground full-link real-time status monitoring and fault diagnosis technology are adopted to realize real-time monitoring telemetry multi-channel digital video under different airborne acquisition systems.Multi-channel video images can be on-demand inserted in any flight test subjects monitoring software.At the same time, it can realize visual real-time status monitoring of the video links of each aircraft.The flight test results show that this technology fully meets the new requirements of the new model test flight for real-time monitoring of video, and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of real-time monitoring of telemetry digital video of the flight test.