• SPECTRUM USAGE MONITORING SYSTEM (SUMS)

      Rodby, Michael; Wigent, Mark; Laulima Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD T&E and Training ranges are under pressure from two sides: externally to share or vacate RF spectrum to make it available for commercial purposes, and internally to increase that usage to support more missions per day, and more data per mission. To appropriately respond to these pressures, the DoD CIO developed the DoD Electromagnetic Spectrum Roadmap and Action Plan. A key recommendation from that plan is to develop a spectrum usage monitoring program at T&E and training ranges. SUMS is being developed in response to that recommendation. The primary objective of SUMS is to give individual T&E and training ranges, as well as the DoD CIO and other senior DoD leadership, a comprehensive picture of spectrum usage at those ranges. This will enable them to make intelligent decisions about spectrum use, and also give them the tools needed to defend current and future spectrum allocations, or to plan cooperative spectrum sharing with non-Federal users. This paper will describe the need for a capability like SUMS, some of the challenges of developing SUMS, its overall architecture, and some of the benefits we expect the DoD to realize when SUMS is fully implemented and deployed.
    • COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR CUBESAT MISSIONS

      Case, Anna; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Several design iterations of communication systems at the Missouri S&T Satellite Research Team reveal that software defined radios (SDR) are viable for low cost, fully functional, and reliable communication systems. Recent licensing policy changes have impacted a number of CubeSat missions, prompting the necessity of bandwidth efficient communication. In searching for solutions to minimize spectral congestion, these systems need to minimize power consumption and maximize data throughput. The flexibility that SDRs provide allows for dynamic link control in orbit. Once completed, the code used to implement this system will be open-sourced for future missions use.
    • AEROBALLISTICS MODULAR MODALITIES (AMM): A MODULAR INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR PROJECTILES

      Barton, Aaron; Granitzki, Richard; Casella, Vincent; Stout, Christopher; Marshall, Eric; U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Munition telemetry engineers are posed with the challenge of developing ruggedized, precision instrumentation for various projectile bodies. Much of the hardware is custom, and engineers must address numerous concurrent electrical and mechanical integration issues within a limited schedule. The Aeroballistics Modular Modalities (AMM) system is a miniaturized, modular, open-architecture platform which provides a pre-made, tailorable system for developing projectile instrumentation electronics. The system excels at capturing projectile dynamics data, where the sensors can be chosen a-la-carte. The system is highly-customizable, and can be tailored to any instrumentation package.
    • FAST CLASSIFICATION OF LEAF IMAGES FOR AGRICULTURAL REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS

      Gajjar, Viraj; Lai, Ze-Hao; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper introduces a method of classifying leaves using machine learning. Considerable emphasis has been put on leaf classification for use in remote sensing applications such as plant phenotyping and precision agriculture. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been extensively used in computer vision for image classification. However, CNN can be computationally expensive. This paper describes a method that achieves a comparable accuracy, with a lower computational burden, using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. This method uses image processing algorithms to extract features from Hough transform and Hough Lines. These features are then integrated with those extracted from binary images, and “eigenleaves” extracted from grayscale, gradient, and different color-space images of leaves as data preprocessing for classification. The classifier is implemented on two publicly available datasets: Flavia and Swedish; and is able to achieve state-of-the-art accuracies using a SVM classifier.
    • IMPACT OF PARAMETER SELECTION IN SOFT-DECISION FEEDBACK TURBO EQUALIZATION

      Nassr, Husam; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science & Technology, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In wireless communication systems, turbo equalization has been used to mitigate the intersymbol interference caused by dispersive channels. Despite its computational complexity, turbo equalization achieves high performance compared to systems that implement the equalization and coding processes separately. The large performance gain achieved through turbo equalization comes from exchanging soft information between the equalizer and decoder in an iterative manner. However, the computational complexity of turbo equalization can be a significant challenge for systems with limited hardware capabilities. This paper examines the performance gain versus computational complexity trade-off for a soft-decision feedback turbo equalizer (SDFTE).We show how to select parameters that achieve a desired performance specification, while minimizing implementation overhead. Sample results are presented from a simulation of a system using a Proakis channel exhibiting severe ISI using QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM modulation schemes.
    • USING PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ANALYSIS WITH HIGH-SPEED CAMERAS IN FLIGHT TESTING APPLICATIONS

      Moore, Russ; Aerospace Instrumentation Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Flight test engineers sometimes need to conduct photogrammetric analysis to investigate transient phenomena and validate computer and wind tunnel models. Data is captured to characterize the performance of the aircraft and its avionics and other equipment and for store separation tests. Store separation encompasses such functionality as fuel tank release, landing gear operation and missile deployment. To capture accurate visual data during flight tests requires the use of a high-speed camera device capable of capturing moving images with exposure times for each image of less than 1/1,000 second or frame rates in excess of 200 frames per second. The cameras used in store separation FTI applications must be very environmentally rugged and perform optimally and accurately in harsh environments. Any potential failure must be mitigated because of the high cost of keeping a test platform in the air. Post-test, it is important that the images can be correlated so the data is suitable for photogrammetric analysis. This paper discusses what is required for successfully capturing data in flight tests for photogrammetric analysis and outlines a high speed camera system solution.
    • FLIGHT SIMULATION WITH DYNAMIC AERONAUTICAL CHANNEL MODEL

      Alam, Tasmeer; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper includes the design, modeling and analysis of the aeronautical channel which includes the dynamics of flight simulation. For any given flight path scenario in the cruise state it is well understood that the channel is fitted by a 2 ray model. The dynamics of this model can be generated using the two-ray ground reflection model which is based on the position, velocity, and direction of the aircraft. The dynamic aeronautical channel model includes Doppler shift and delay spread for each path of a channel model. This paper shows how each parameter is created for modelling the dynamic channel. The design of such channel model will help the telemetry community to incorporate channel dynamics in computer simulation to improve the accuracy of flight simulation in the design and pre-test stages. Further, it can provide insight to the selection of modulation, equalization and coding for such channels.
    • DYNAMIC OBSTACLE CHARACTERIZATION AND AVOIDANCE FOR UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

      Norland, Kyle; Marcellin, Michael W.; Univ Arizona, Dept Syst & Ind Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      To address the challenge of avoiding dynamic obstacles during the course of the 2018 SUAS competition, a multistage obstacle characterization and avoidance algorithm was designed and implemented. The obstacle characterization section begins with simple base assumptions about behavior and goes through several more advanced stages of obstacle characterization and prediction as more data arises and advanced behavior is detected. The path finding section of the algorithm uses a recursive Monte Carlo path sampling function with a flexible structure that allows for usage with varying computational budgets. It also restricts its computational usage depending on the level of variability in the obstacles.
    • DTN ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR DRONE SWARM TELEMETRY

      Brown, Jason R.; Rohrer, Justin P.; Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Computer Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Drone swarms pose a particular challenge to telemetry networks, due to the number of airborne nodes involved, and their potential to overwhelm the available bandwidth on the communications channel with simultaneous telemetry streams. Previously, we saw that mobile ad-hoc (MANET) routing protocols could exacerbate this issue by flooding the network with routing-control packets. In this work we model the Naval Postgraduate School fixed-wing drone swarm and compare the performance of several disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) routing protocols designed to address these challenges.
    • PROTECTION OF THE MIL-STD-1553 WITH DISCRETE WAVELET ALGORITHMS

      Fansler, Aaron; Ampex Intelligent Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper reviews at a high level Ampex’s Black Lightning capability. The Black Lightning capability tool was developed to be the first cyber defensive tool specifically designed to work at the field device component level of a Control System (CS). BLACK LIGHTNING is a passive, real-time monitoring and detection tool designed and built specifically for control systems professionals. The BLACK LIGHTNING capability uses a patent pending detection algorithm, which scans SCADA specific protocols for any anomalous activity within the customer defined component thresholds. In doing this BLACK LIGHTNING is able to alerting operators of any abnormal activity for further investigation faster than anything currently on the market. One can look at the internals of an aircraft as multiple layers of control systems working together. As defined, “A control system is a collection of mechanical and electrical equipment that allows an aircraft to be flown with exceptional precision and reliability”. An aircraft has many control systems. These systems consist of fuel, heat, speed, altitude, hydraulics, navigation, communications, sensors, actuators, servos, multiple computers just to name a few as examples. At Ampex, we view a control system as what it is, a control system. The process(es) above that the control system(s) is transparent to us. If you protect the system and subsystems below the process then by default you will protect the process above regardless if it’s an industrial power plant, nuclear power plant, water facility, manufacturing plant or an aircraft. At Ampex we protect the process by monitoring and protecting the systems below.
    • CURRENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN FLIGHT TEST CONFIGURATION TECHNIQUES

      Whittington, Austin; Ibaroudene, Hakima; Abbott, Ben; Yao, Di; Hite, Joseph; Bapty, Theodore; Moskal, Jakub; Neumann, Michael; Southwest Research Institute; Vanderbilt University; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      As technologies like network-based telemetry and standardized configuration languages begin to see wider adoption within the flight test community, new techniques exploring the new possibilities they provide are also developed. This paper reviews a subset of these techniques, including successful use in commercial flight test, focusing on the concepts of constraints and their application in the field, specifically their use in helping users to create correct-by-construction configurations. We then explore ongoing efforts with the Air Force and DARPA to extend these techniques into constraint satisfaction and real-time adaptation, providing the ability to create and adapt configurations to match (possibly changing) test requirements.
    • CFO Estimation by Exploiting Channel Sparsity in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Afran, Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In this paper, we explore a carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation scheme with sparsity-constraint (SC) on the aeronautical telemetry channels. This SC CFO estimator is implemented in two steps. In the first step, channel support is recovered by combining compressed sensing techniques with the CFO estimate based on the non-sparsity constraint (NSC) on the channel. Next we use the estimated channel support to derive the SC CFO estimator. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of the SC CFO estimator against the existing NSC CFO estimators using shaped offset QPSK version TG (SOQPSK-TG) modulated iNET-formatted data over an aeronautical test channel.
    • ELIMINATING WIRING IN AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION THROUGH ENERGY HARVESTING

      Thompson, Rebecca; Hull, Thalia; Rice, Dr. Michael; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; BYU, Department of Mechanical Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Installing the many sensors required for flight testing is currently a difficult and awkward process requiring significant wiring. Short term sensor installation could be greatly improved if individual sensors did not have to be connected to a distant power source. This paper proposes that small aerodynamic vibration energy harvesting devices could provide power directly to sensors and simplify installation. To investigate feasibility, the simplest known energy harvester configuration is chosen. A mathematical model to represent the device is then developed. A test scenario using the aerodynamic vibrations present on the F-15B aircraft is then incorporated into the model. The test results are analyzed to determine if the energy harvesting device can produce sufficient energy to justify further analysis. Finally, potential design improvements are discussed.
    • CODEBOOK BASED TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE GEOLOCATION

      Yang, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Dylan; Nakamura, Drew; Hua, Lee; Univ California Santa Barbara, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Conventional geolocation techniques were developed based on time-delay estimation, followed by computation of the angle of arrival (AOA). The AOA computation is the main cause of latency, which significantly degrades the feasibility of real-time bearing-angle detection. The computation also adds to hardware complexity and power consumption, which is critical for small, light-weight and mobile devices. This paper presents a codebook based approach to geolocation. The delay profiles are mapped to a precomputed codebook to match the optimal estimation of the geolocation. This simplifies the computation procedure and makes real-time computing feasible. It utilizes limited memory capacity to reduce latency and hardware complexity. This approach also allows us to accurately assess the resolving capability. In addition, it reduces computation for joint estimation with multiple receiver units, especially in mobile format.
    • 4G LTE AND TELEMETRY INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS ON A FLEXIBLE SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO TESTBED PLATFORM

      Gonzalez, Juan F.; Elahi, Mirza; Castillo, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Corral, Pabel; Yasuda, Susumu; University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      With the upcoming AWS auctions by the FCC, the shared radio frequency spectrum is to be impacted in a way that its current users will have to maintain their operations with a reduced amount of spectrum. Mainly focusing on the L, S, and the lower C-bands, the 4G LTE and the White Sands Missile Range telemetry systems will be the primary affected users. With the implementation of a flexible software-defined radio testbed, it is possible to simulate both communication systems to qualify and quantify their behavior, while studying the interference between systems. The testbed allows the implementation of both systems with adjustable parameters with the purpose of mitigating interference and to produce a set of rules to obtain a clean telemetry signal and to reduce LTE interference, and vice-versa. The flexibility of this testbed is reflected in its ability to change the modulation types, power levels, frequency bands, and the ability to transmit in a closed-loop or wireless environment.
    • PERFORMANCE TEST OF INITIAL iNET-LIKE RF NETWORK USING HELICOPTER (2018)

      Ito, Sei; Honda, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Aoyama, Daiki; Abe, Katsuhiko; Morimatsu, Takafumi; Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) has been authorized to use S-band IP Transceivers since 2014 in Japan. We have been involved with tests for two-way high-capacity communication. We presented the results of the performance test using a helicopter at ITC2016. We continued further performance test in 2017-2018.
    • AM-AM/AM-PM IN A C-BAND TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER USING 16-APSK

      Baxter, Jason; Perrins, Erik; DePardo, Dan; University of Kansas, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Due to the economic importance of spectrum allocation, modulation schemes traditionally used in telemetry are being replaced with more spectrally efficient schemes. Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (APSK) is one modulation scheme being considered for implementation in aeronautical telemetry. However, an APSK modulated signal is vulnerable to nonlinearities of a transmitter’s RF power amplifier (PA). Driving a PA into saturation produces two undesired nonlinearities: amplitude-to-amplitude modulation (AM-AM) and amplitude-to-phase modulation (AMPM). This paper characterizes the PA in a C-Band transmitter using a 16-APSK test signal in terms of these nonlinearities.
    • RF Planning for 3D coverage in Cellular LTE Range Telemetry

      Harasty, Dan; Kogiantis, Achilles; Maung, Nan; Rege, Kiran; Triolo, Anthony; Perspecta Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Initial analysis and lab experiments have provided positive confirmation of the viability of 4G LTE Cellular Technology for Aeronautical mobile telemetry. COTS LTE equipment is deployed for the test range frequency bands. The high speeds of test articles (TAs) can be addressed with a UE add-on applique’ customized to compensate for the Doppler shifts. The applique has worked effectively with the LTE physical layer. To achieve spectrum efficiency, a multi-cell network is planned. Mobility is managed with native LTE handovers. To address extreme Doppler cases, additional support is provided to mobility management via a central entity that estimates the TA’s trajectory and issues handover commands. Within this framework, we present aspects of an RF planning study that characterizes the dependence of coverage on such design parameters as base station density, antenna orientation, and altitude of the user device. We also quantify the Doppler shifts that can result under the standard strategy of connecting the user device to the strongest cell, and show how, with an alternative, threshold-based strategy, one can achieve a substantial reduction in Doppler shifts at the expense of a loss in user rates.
    • INTEGRATED DATA ACQUISITION SOLUTIONS FOR AEROSPACE PLATFORMS WITH HIGHLY RESTRICTIVE SPACE AND WEIGHT REQUIREMENTS AND HARSH ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

      Quinn, Pat; Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions, Aerospace Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Space and weight are key factors in designing, mounting and installing data acquisition systems on UAV and missile development programs. Additionally, there are an increasing number of measurements and avionic busses that must be captured reliably and transmitted to the ground. This paper discusses the challenges faced by the current generation of solutions and proposes and integrated and expandable solution that addresses these challenges, meeting the requirements while future proofing the platform architecture for additional data acquisition requirements.
    • ACCELERATING STANDARDS COMPLIANT TMNS RADIO IMPLEMENTATIONS

      Newton, Todd A.; Timme, M. Wayne; Southwest Research Institute® (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      IRIG 106-17 defines interoperable two-way network telemetry interfaces for the wired as well as the dynamic TDMA air interface. While the air interface is based on the familiar SOQPSK-TG waveform, a TmNS-based radio contains a dynamic TDMA MAC regulated by Link Management through the use of RFNMs. This paper illustrates the TmNS-based radio aspects of the IRIG standard by describing our experience utilizing a two-track approach for accelerated TmNS compliant radio development. We have divided the architecture by engineering discipline lines (Communications vs. Computer Engineering). Doing so allowed us to accelerate the design, simulation, and test tasks while using a common code base across various transceiver implementations. Discussion includes a description of the software modules that provide TmNS interfaces for standards compliant radio functionality such as the TDMA MAC, RFNM processing, system management, and MDL configuration as well as system-level integration testing.