Price, Nathan; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science & Technology, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Prior work has shown that software defined radio has the ability to reduce the size, weight, power and cost of telemetry and avionics. We propose a virtualized transceiver architecture that supports multiple concurrent software defined radio (SDR) applications running on shared SDR hardware. This paper applies the concept of virtual transceivers to SDR for telemetry and avionics. The proposed design allows for transceivers to be shared between different SDR applications by taking advantage of time separation and frequency adjacency. This paper addresses the system layout, hardware selection, and software organization. Improvements include a scalable and considerations for both redundancy and upgradability.
    • The Design and Application of C-band Base Station Based Multi-target Telemetry Network System

      Shiwei, Guo; Zhongjie, Wang; Xin, Zhang; Zhaohui, Huo; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      A C-band base station based multi-target telemetry network system for flight test is designed in this paper. The requirements of multi-target transmission are realized by TDMA and TDD technology. And the transmission rate of up to 50 Mbps is provided by the high efficient modulation method. An integrated air-to-ground telemetry network is built with C-band wireless two-way link. The telemetry signals of super large airspace are covered seamlessly through multiple base stations, therefore the shortage of current telemetry is solved, and the demand of multi-target and mass date transmission for flight test is satisfied. The development of the system provides technical support for the high speed data transmission of the flight test, which will lay a foundation for the construction of integrated air-to-ground test and the test network system.

      Guarino de Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo; Kusumoto, André Yoshimi; Roberto, Leandro; Zanette, João Vitor; Oliveira Leite, Nelson Paiva; Araujo Lopes, Cristina Moniz; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA); Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAV); et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Of all the stages of the process of store separation, the flight test stage is the most expensive stage. Thus, the smaller the number of flights, the better. One step prior to in-flight tests is the pitch drop. In this stage, the use of a computer vision solution can assist engineers during the test to determine whether the test point was safe or not. When using cameras in any activity that requires accuracy in the results, it is necessary to perform the calibration of the optical system used in the tests. The IPEV has developed a solution that (1) the construction of a calibration field so that camera calibrations can be performed using a single frame; (2) a method for carrying out pitch drop test; (3) and an application that uses computational vision to process data from high-acquisition-rate cameras and generate the results in 6DoF. The development and validation of the solution are described in this work.

      Fung, Eddie; Johnson, William H.; Kogiantis, Achilles; Rege, Kiran M.; Perspecta Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      High Doppler shifts between base stations and test articles (TAs) pose the biggest problem to Aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) implemented on a wireless LTE network. Our solution to this problem includes a Doppler estimator/compensator (DEC) that proactively shifts the LTE uplink (LTE UL) signals transmitted by the TA. We have designed the DEC in the form of an applique’ that can be inserted between the transmit/receive ports of a COTS TA transceiver and its antenna(s). The DEC estimates the Doppler shift using the LTE UL signals transmitted by the TA, which carry a frequency offset that includes the Doppler shift. This not only provides a clean, noise- and fading-free signal for Doppler estimation, but also allows us to do away with the need to know the identity of the base station with which the TA is communicating. In this paper, we provide an architectural description of the DEC and an outline of the algorithms that have been incorporated into it. At present, a laboratory prototype of the DEC has been developed using Universal Software Radio Peripherals (USRPs), coupled with a Linux PC to carry out most of the computations. An FPGA-based implementation is currently under development.

      Brown, Jason R.; Rohrer, Justin P.; Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Computer Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Drone swarms pose a particular challenge to telemetry networks, due to the number of airborne nodes involved, and their potential to overwhelm the available bandwidth on the communications channel with simultaneous telemetry streams. Previously, we saw that mobile ad-hoc (MANET) routing protocols could exacerbate this issue by flooding the network with routing-control packets. In this work we model the Naval Postgraduate School fixed-wing drone swarm and compare the performance of several disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) routing protocols designed to address these challenges.

      Norland, Kyle; Marcellin, Michael W.; Univ Arizona, Dept Syst & Ind Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      To address the challenge of avoiding dynamic obstacles during the course of the 2018 SUAS competition, a multistage obstacle characterization and avoidance algorithm was designed and implemented. The obstacle characterization section begins with simple base assumptions about behavior and goes through several more advanced stages of obstacle characterization and prediction as more data arises and advanced behavior is detected. The path finding section of the algorithm uses a recursive Monte Carlo path sampling function with a flexible structure that allows for usage with varying computational budgets. It also restricts its computational usage depending on the level of variability in the obstacles.
    • Early Flightline Radio Network Demonstration

      Picha, Bob; Nokia Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)

      Phillips, Andrew J.; Creusere, Charles D.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper analyzes lossy data compression in the specific context of event-related potential (ERP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data. The lossy data compression techniques analyzed here are bit-rate quantization and frequency truncation using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Within the context of both methods it is demonstrated that ERP analysis waveforms yield significant data compression advantages over raw EEG data. It is found from the experimental results that for any given quantization error bound, utilization of ERP analysis requires approximately 3 fewer bits per EEG sample than normalized EEG data. Additionally, given any error bound for frequency truncation, at least 30% more total DCT coefficients can be discarded when utilizing ERP analysis instead of raw EEG data. The results hold significant implications for large-scale medical applications that rely on ERP analysis of EEG data.

      Thompson, Rebecca; Hull, Thalia; Rice, Dr. Michael; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; BYU, Department of Mechanical Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Installing the many sensors required for flight testing is currently a difficult and awkward process requiring significant wiring. Short term sensor installation could be greatly improved if individual sensors did not have to be connected to a distant power source. This paper proposes that small aerodynamic vibration energy harvesting devices could provide power directly to sensors and simplify installation. To investigate feasibility, the simplest known energy harvester configuration is chosen. A mathematical model to represent the device is then developed. A test scenario using the aerodynamic vibrations present on the F-15B aircraft is then incorporated into the model. The test results are analyzed to determine if the energy harvesting device can produce sufficient energy to justify further analysis. Finally, potential design improvements are discussed.

      Hoffman, Richard W. III; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      As an increasing number of telemetry range architectures move toward a TMoIP-centric distribution system, operators are being confronted with another evolving requirement to ensure future IPv6 capability and a migration path from an IPv4-based system design. In order to facilitate a better understanding of some of the challenges and opportunities that IPv6 migration presents the modern range operator, this paper endeavors to present the past decade’s experience of range TMoIP implementation in the context of the emergent IPv6 technology and requirements. An overview of a myriad of concepts such as address space allocation, device-specific implementation differences, management protocol handling, and the differences between IPv4 and IPv6 versions, will provide opportunities to discuss the implications of these issues on the successful implementation of high-availability telemetry delivery systems in an IP-based environment.

      Gajjar, Viraj; Lai, Ze-Hao; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper introduces a method of classifying leaves using machine learning. Considerable emphasis has been put on leaf classification for use in remote sensing applications such as plant phenotyping and precision agriculture. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been extensively used in computer vision for image classification. However, CNN can be computationally expensive. This paper describes a method that achieves a comparable accuracy, with a lower computational burden, using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. This method uses image processing algorithms to extract features from Hough transform and Hough Lines. These features are then integrated with those extracted from binary images, and “eigenleaves” extracted from grayscale, gradient, and different color-space images of leaves as data preprocessing for classification. The classifier is implemented on two publicly available datasets: Flavia and Swedish; and is able to achieve state-of-the-art accuracies using a SVM classifier.

      Willis, Jacob; Holtom, Jacob; Walton, Patrick; Smith, Jackson; Wallin, Nikolai; Long, David G.; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      An elegant telemetry payload, which transmits IMU, atmospheric, or light data during flight and deployment from a small model rocket, is presented. Data is received by a custom, mobile, handpointed ground station. The payload is patterned after a thumb-sized satellite, called a femtosat. Its design is optimized for ease of implementation. The femtosat system resulted from a grassroots, student peer-mentoring program developed at Brigham Young University.

      Alam, Tasmeer; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper includes the design, modeling and analysis of the aeronautical channel which includes the dynamics of flight simulation. For any given flight path scenario in the cruise state it is well understood that the channel is fitted by a 2 ray model. The dynamics of this model can be generated using the two-ray ground reflection model which is based on the position, velocity, and direction of the aircraft. The dynamic aeronautical channel model includes Doppler shift and delay spread for each path of a channel model. This paper shows how each parameter is created for modelling the dynamic channel. The design of such channel model will help the telemetry community to incorporate channel dynamics in computer simulation to improve the accuracy of flight simulation in the design and pre-test stages. Further, it can provide insight to the selection of modulation, equalization and coding for such channels.

      Wu, Zhenhua; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Xiaoya; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In multi-bus, long-endurance flight test, the huge test data is recorded by networked airborne testing system. After the flight, to ensure that engineers can analyze engineering data immediately, the processing platform must use limited resources quickly to complete test data processing. Because the test parameters sets on different test tasks are different, we design an airborne restructurable fast data processing system: during the flight, uploading the phased data processing configuration information through telemetry uplink in real time according to the execution state of the ongoing test task, based on these task requirements, the airborne processing system restructures its processing logic and workflow, avoiding repeated calculation of parameters, and ensuring the limited onboard computing resources can meet the needs of multitasking comprehensive flight test data processing.
    • The Fly-Over Terabyte Offload (FOTO) Concept

      Thomason, Michael; Bevilacqua Research Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)

      Curry, Elam; Borah, Deva K.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In generalized spatial modulation (GSM), information is conveyed both by the indices of multiple activated antennas and the modulation symbols they transmit. GSM includes generalized space shift keying (GSSK) and spatial modulation (SM) as special cases. In a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with correlated antennas, a large number of possible GSM symbol sets exists, and the use of a particular set affects the error performance. This problem has been addressed recently for visible light communication systems using an iterative combinatorial symbol search algorithm. This paper investigates the adaptation of the this iterative algorithm for GSM symbol design in MIMO radio frequency systems. Several approaches to calculating the inter-symbol distances are introduced. The performance of the designed GSM, GSSK, and SM symbol sets is compared. The effects of the Rician fading channel parameters and the spectral efficiency are investigated.
    • Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

      Zegeye, Wondimu K.; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Networked Telemetry faces the threat of intrusion like any other cyber network. In this paper, we address the problem of modeling an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). It is part of a bigger objective towards capturing and analyzing network traffic to identify anomalous traffic which in turn will be used to alarm a system administrator. The network traffic analysis phase involves feature extraction, dimension reduction and vector quantization (VQ) techniques which play a significant role in large data sets as the number of data being transmitted is increasing day by day from one network to another. The IDS framework developed makes use of multi-class HMM where each of the HMM layers are trained for a specific network traffic type. In order to test the resulting model’s capability to predict anomalous traffic, the system is tested with a testing data set. Performance of the model against the KDD ‘99 dataset demonstrates accuracy greater that 99%.
    • Homing and Docking Algorithms for Circular Transmission and Receiver Arrays

      Radzicki, Vincent R.; Hua, Lee; Univ California Santa Barbara, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Homing and docking are two major components in the navigation of UAV’s and UUV’s. It involves the estimation of the six-element displacement vector based on the received signals, where three of the vector elements are associated with the translational displacement and the other three are for the rotation vector. The homing procedure is based on the estimation of the rotation vector with far-field approximations. In the docking range, the displacement estimation becomes more sensitive and critical. Far-field approximation-based algorithms are no longer effective, and high-precision techniques become important and need to be developed. In this paper, we examine and model the multi-dimensional displacement estimation for circular arrays. It allows us to accurately assess the performance as well as the limitation of the algorithms, with respect to various system parameters such as the size of the arrays, range distance, transmitted waveforms, and signal processing algorithms.

      Nassr, Husam; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science & Technology, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In wireless communication systems, turbo equalization has been used to mitigate the intersymbol interference caused by dispersive channels. Despite its computational complexity, turbo equalization achieves high performance compared to systems that implement the equalization and coding processes separately. The large performance gain achieved through turbo equalization comes from exchanging soft information between the equalizer and decoder in an iterative manner. However, the computational complexity of turbo equalization can be a significant challenge for systems with limited hardware capabilities. This paper examines the performance gain versus computational complexity trade-off for a soft-decision feedback turbo equalizer (SDFTE).We show how to select parameters that achieve a desired performance specification, while minimizing implementation overhead. Sample results are presented from a simulation of a system using a Proakis channel exhibiting severe ISI using QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM modulation schemes.

      Anderson, Kohl; Boyer, Kyle; Brubaker, Laura; Fuehrer, Daniel; Herriman, Richard; Houston, Paul; Ruckle, Sean; Marcellin, Michael; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The University of Arizona Baja Racing Team competes annually in a grueling off-road racing competition designed to test the durability of each team’s vehicle. For the last several years, we have been developing a custom telemetry system to monitor and analyze the performance of the vehicle in order to provide live diagnostics to the pit crew and driver, as well as to inform future designs. This year, we have redesigned the core of the system to be more modular and use more COTS parts in order to allow easier upgrade and repair, and have upgraded many existing sensors, added sensors to monitor driver vitals, improved the driver’s display, and embedded USB hubs in our power distribution boards to allow programming of all microcontrollers on the vehicle over a single USB interface. These changes will make future development easier and will produce far more data than we have had in previous generations.