Curry, Elam; Borah, Deva K.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In generalized spatial modulation (GSM), information is conveyed both by the indices of multiple activated antennas and the modulation symbols they transmit. GSM includes generalized space shift keying (GSSK) and spatial modulation (SM) as special cases. In a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with correlated antennas, a large number of possible GSM symbol sets exists, and the use of a particular set affects the error performance. This problem has been addressed recently for visible light communication systems using an iterative combinatorial symbol search algorithm. This paper investigates the adaptation of the this iterative algorithm for GSM symbol design in MIMO radio frequency systems. Several approaches to calculating the inter-symbol distances are introduced. The performance of the designed GSM, GSSK, and SM symbol sets is compared. The effects of the Rician fading channel parameters and the spectral efficiency are investigated.
    • Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

      Zegeye, Wondimu K.; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Networked Telemetry faces the threat of intrusion like any other cyber network. In this paper, we address the problem of modeling an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). It is part of a bigger objective towards capturing and analyzing network traffic to identify anomalous traffic which in turn will be used to alarm a system administrator. The network traffic analysis phase involves feature extraction, dimension reduction and vector quantization (VQ) techniques which play a significant role in large data sets as the number of data being transmitted is increasing day by day from one network to another. The IDS framework developed makes use of multi-class HMM where each of the HMM layers are trained for a specific network traffic type. In order to test the resulting model’s capability to predict anomalous traffic, the system is tested with a testing data set. Performance of the model against the KDD ‘99 dataset demonstrates accuracy greater that 99%.
    • Homing and Docking Algorithms for Circular Transmission and Receiver Arrays

      Radzicki, Vincent R.; Hua, Lee; Univ California Santa Barbara, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Homing and docking are two major components in the navigation of UAV’s and UUV’s. It involves the estimation of the six-element displacement vector based on the received signals, where three of the vector elements are associated with the translational displacement and the other three are for the rotation vector. The homing procedure is based on the estimation of the rotation vector with far-field approximations. In the docking range, the displacement estimation becomes more sensitive and critical. Far-field approximation-based algorithms are no longer effective, and high-precision techniques become important and need to be developed. In this paper, we examine and model the multi-dimensional displacement estimation for circular arrays. It allows us to accurately assess the performance as well as the limitation of the algorithms, with respect to various system parameters such as the size of the arrays, range distance, transmitted waveforms, and signal processing algorithms.

      Nassr, Husam; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science & Technology, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In wireless communication systems, turbo equalization has been used to mitigate the intersymbol interference caused by dispersive channels. Despite its computational complexity, turbo equalization achieves high performance compared to systems that implement the equalization and coding processes separately. The large performance gain achieved through turbo equalization comes from exchanging soft information between the equalizer and decoder in an iterative manner. However, the computational complexity of turbo equalization can be a significant challenge for systems with limited hardware capabilities. This paper examines the performance gain versus computational complexity trade-off for a soft-decision feedback turbo equalizer (SDFTE).We show how to select parameters that achieve a desired performance specification, while minimizing implementation overhead. Sample results are presented from a simulation of a system using a Proakis channel exhibiting severe ISI using QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM modulation schemes.

      Anderson, Kohl; Boyer, Kyle; Brubaker, Laura; Fuehrer, Daniel; Herriman, Richard; Houston, Paul; Ruckle, Sean; Marcellin, Michael; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The University of Arizona Baja Racing Team competes annually in a grueling off-road racing competition designed to test the durability of each team’s vehicle. For the last several years, we have been developing a custom telemetry system to monitor and analyze the performance of the vehicle in order to provide live diagnostics to the pit crew and driver, as well as to inform future designs. This year, we have redesigned the core of the system to be more modular and use more COTS parts in order to allow easier upgrade and repair, and have upgraded many existing sensors, added sensors to monitor driver vitals, improved the driver’s display, and embedded USB hubs in our power distribution boards to allow programming of all microcontrollers on the vehicle over a single USB interface. These changes will make future development easier and will produce far more data than we have had in previous generations.

      DePardo, Dan; University of Kansas, Information and Telecommunication Technology Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The implementation of more advanced modulation formats such as Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK), which can be spectrally more efficient and potentially less susceptible to adjacent channel interference than current aeronautical telemetry modulation schemes, could serve to mitigate telemetry frequency spectrum reductions and reallocations. This paper will detail initial laboratory transmitter measurements and observations of 16-APSK modulation performance in comparison to SOQPSK-TG.

      Quinn, Pat; Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions, Aerospace Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Space and weight are key factors in designing, mounting and installing data acquisition systems on UAV and missile development programs. Additionally, there are an increasing number of measurements and avionic busses that must be captured reliably and transmitted to the ground. This paper discusses the challenges faced by the current generation of solutions and proposes and integrated and expandable solution that addresses these challenges, meeting the requirements while future proofing the platform architecture for additional data acquisition requirements.

      Thurston, Noah; Vanhoy, Garrett; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The threat of a malicious user interfering with network traffic so as to deny access to resources is an inherent vulnerability of wireless networks. To combat this threat, physical layer waveforms that are resilient to interference are used to relay critical traffic. These waveforms are designed to make it difficult for a malicious user to both deny access to network resources and avoid detection. If a malicious user has perfect knowledge of the waveform being used, it can avoid detection and deny network throughput, but this knowledge is naturally limited in practice. In this work, the threat of a malicious user that can implicitly learn the nature of the waveform being used simply by observing reactions to its behavior is analyzed and potential mitigation techniques are discussed. The results show that using recurrent neural networks to implement deep Q-learning, a malicious user can converge on an optimal interference policy that simultaneously minimizes the potential for it to be detected and maximizes its impediment on network traffic.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 54 (2018)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11

      Moskal, Jakub; Whittington, Austin; Kokar, Mitch; Abbott, Ben; VIStology, Inc.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      It is expected that XML-based languages for configuring telemetry systems like MDL and TMATS will eventually replace their non-XML predecessors. However, despite its numerous benefits, XML does not solve all the related problems. In particular, it cannot harness the complexity of constraints that may pertain to vendor hardware or to express system-level constraints that span across entire networks of devices. In this paper, we present TACL, a T&E extension to W3C Shape Constraints Language (SHACL) for formulating constraints on configurations represented in MDL and TMATS, independently of any configuration software. TACL introduces high-level components that help to form constraints close to the user’s intent and are less concerned with the low-level syntax details. It exhibits much better resilience to changes in the XML schemas than the languages that refer directly to the XML trees. A proof of concept TACL engine has been successfully developed and applied to MDL/TACL configurations.

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Generally, telemetry applications are not on the cutting edge of storage technology for several reasons: they do not need the high performance, cannot provide the power for high performance, and cannot afford the instability of new technologies. While Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) might initially seem to be the opposite of those goals, it does in fact have the ability to meet them; power and performance can be matched to an application’s needs, and NVMe is gaining stability as it gains overall market share. With the overall data storage industry moving to NVMe, other storage interfaces will begin to decline and future improvements will occur only on NVMe. With the right ruggedization and customization options, NVMe can be a good fit for telemetry applications.

      Alam, Tasmeer; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Morgan State University, Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper includes analysis of aeronautical channel dynamics in flight simulations of the Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR). LDAR system includes realistic measurement of the throughput gain with the adaptation of the modulation and coding parameters for telemetry applications. To increase the accuracy, channel dynamics have been incorporated in the simulation. Dynamic channel simulator is developed by the customized two ray ground reflection channel model including Doppler shift, delay spread, and other channel dynamics. This paper shows the comparison of the performance of LDAR using both static and dynamic channel. The impact of creating accurate simulation results with this dynamic channel simulator reaches beyond LDAR and will help the telemetry community to improve the accuracy of computer simulation in the design and pre-test stages.

      Hegde, Vinayak; Nokia Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)

      Xiaolin, FENG; Jie, ZHANG; Zhongjie, WANG; Zanchao, WANG; Chinese Flight Test Establishment, Optical And Electrical Measurement Department, Institute Of Measurement Technology; Beihang University, School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronic Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Parachute is an essential guarantee for flight safety. The offset angle on parachute deployment is an important parameter to evaluate its performance. In this paper, the principle of space constraint is applied to design a motion parameter measurement method based on monocular vision with high-speed camera. And an intelligent real-time tracking algorithm based on image features is proposed to obtain images of the parachute during the deployment process. The realtime position and the offset angle of parachute are achieved by this method in flight test, which provides a reliable and effective means for the design and improvement of the parachute.

      Kovach, Bob; IPtec, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The efforts to implement the distribution of real-time information streams via IP packet-based networks in the range environment have largely utilized the recovery of timing information via implicit techniques, such as adaptive clock recovery. These techniques allowed the alignment of streams with disparate delay characteristics to accuracies on the order of 1 millisecond. With the availability of techniques to distribute high accuracy timing information to network nodes, the capability to recover and align real time streams on the order of microseconds is possible. This paper will focus on a methodology to perform precision stream alignment that utilizes timestamping and the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) as a clock source. IEEE 1588 is currently utilized in cellular networks to deliver synchronization to remote network elements, providing superior accuracy and stability. The paper will review expectations for performance and discuss considerations in system level design to optimize timing distribution performance and ultimately stream alignment accuracy. System elements and their effect on performance will be identified and characterized. Finally, a TM Gateway implementation example which utilizes PTP coupled with hardwareassisted timestamping techniques to align recovered TM streams to a high degree of accuracy will be described. Real world results for clock accuracy and expectations for stream alignment accuracy will be shared.

      Thom, Gary A.; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Today’s telemetry ground stations are migrating from traditional serial PCM data distribution to Telemetry over IP architectures. The Range Commanders Council has published IRIG 218-10 TELEMETRY TRANSMISSION OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (TMoIP) STANDARD, which attempts to standardize PCM distribution over IP networks and is currently working on a revision. Ranges have begun investigating new TMoIP systems. This paper attempts to facilitate this migration by discussing the TMoIP, networking and architectural concepts that need to be considered when deploying a TMoIP system. The paper draws on the lessons learned over the previous 10 years of designing, installing, troubleshooting and optimizing telemetry data distribution over IP networks. It discusses the critical component and architectural decisions to be made and some of the pitfalls to be avoided.
    • Network Scheduling Algorithm with Efficient Backfill Process in the iNET

      Roh, Dongseok; Oh, Jonghun; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      One of the major advantage of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) system is data backfill. In the iNET, network data server requests signal retransmission from the on-board recorder when the signal dropout is detected, and data is retransmitted which leads successful reception. If there are numerous test articles (TA), however, multiple backfill process for signal request and data retransmission can cause undesirable capacity waste. This paper describes the improved backfill process in iNET with multiple TAs. This process includes grouping and scheduling algorithm within TAs, and the orthogonal and non-orthogonal transmission. The system model and results are analyzed by simulation.
    • A New Network Telemetry technique In Aviatic Flight Tests

      Xingguo, Zhang; Hong, Li; Guojin, Peng; Zanchao, Wang; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In order to address the issue of insufficient telemetry frequencies in flight tests, a telemetry transmission solution is proposed to transmit the principal parameters and HUD video for multiple aircrafts based on bi-directional wireless network. All the key points including the wireless transmission architecture for airborne and ground integration, network resources management, and dynamic configuration of airborne test system are illustrated. The research result has been verified in flight tests, and the experimental methods and results are presented as well.

      Harris, Jonathan; Kopp, Brian; University of North Florida, Electrical Engineering Department (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Data Collection System (DCS) receives environmental data from approximately 28,000 Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) that transmit up to the GOES spacecraft in the Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) band between 401.7 Mega-Hertz (MHz) and 402.1 MHz. The radio spectrum around 402 MHz is also available to commercial satellite companies and several have recently begun using the spectrum. There are questions regarding whether the shared use of the spectrum by small satellites may pose an interference problem to the NOAA DCS program and if so how such issues might be mitigated. This paper discusses some of the pertinent technical issues regarding the performance of the DCS system, reviews some of the known commercial satellite systems sharing the spectrum and briefly discusses some of the issues that spectrum sharing creates.

      Cook, Paul; Aerospace Instrumentation Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Safety system implementation for Flight Termination involves the interconnection of specific signals from one (no redundancy) or both (redundancy) Flight Termination Receivers (FTR) to be telemetered to the ground for monitoring by the Range Safety Officer (RSO). The number of specific signals per FTR can be as high as 12 independent signals resulting in a large wire harness. The addition of an RS-232 programming interface on the radar transponder and telemetry transmitters adds weight and cost, takes up space and creates installation and maintenance issues. This paper discusses how switching to a serial wiring approach, such as a multidrop bus, will reduce wiring and allow for other features including more in-depth status information and quick system configuration reprogramming.