Liaghati, Amir; Chang, Nick; Liaghati, Mahsa; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The telemetry system designed for the space vehicle requires to provide constant data output, including video and instrumentation to the telemetry/transmitter box through the mission. The video data captured from the space travel is always high demand for social media or mission purpose. However, the limited telemetry bandwidth for transmitting all the high quality video data to the ground station before the end of the mission drives the system level design challenges. There are operational flight instrumentation data which takes higher priority than the video data in the telemetry bandwidth allocation. A common design approach to output all the video data is to utilize the filled data or IDLE frame with many small size IPv4 datagrams of the video. As a result, there are some video data are dropped out by the ground received equipment due to an extended period of waiting time of the receiver to collect all the defragmented IPv4 datagrams and reconstruct to a large IPv4 packet. One solution to resolve this problem is to have the telemetry processing box handling the defragmented IPv4 datagram by holding fragmented IP datagrams and reconstruct a whole IP packet before sending it to the transmitter, and yet still maintaining the vehicle telemetry system performance. This paper is going to focus on this method by developing a system level simulation tool and analyze the performance of the vehicle.

      Huang, Ruchang; Wei, Guobo; Wang, Zhongjie; Li, Panwen; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In the flight test, the matching compatibility of the fighter inlet and the engine is the key to the test flight of the engine performance quality. Especially at high incidence of high attack angle and over stall maneuver, the characteristics of the inlet are very important to the engine. The current traditional test scheme cannot real-time telemeter the inlet distortion signal.This paper aims at the problem by designing an embedded airborne real-time processing unit which can real-time calculate and telemetry of the inlet distortion signal. Then the results are displayed in the ground monitoring station by cloud image mode. So we can evaluate the matching performance of the inlet and engine during aircraft flight, and achieve the aim of prejudging the risk of inlet distortion.
    • Real-time Processing and Integrated Monitoring Technology for Telemetry Multi-channel Digital Video

      Yang, Zhe; Guo, Pingfan; Huo, Zhaohui; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In flight test telemetry digital video real-time monitoring, some technical problems about single function of the video playback software, needing a dedicated player software (poor extensibility) and lacking the necessary fault diagnosis methods are analyzed.Intelligent playback technology, component video playback plug-in, ground full-link real-time status monitoring and fault diagnosis technology are adopted to realize real-time monitoring telemetry multi-channel digital video under different airborne acquisition systems.Multi-channel video images can be on-demand inserted in any flight test subjects monitoring software.At the same time, it can realize visual real-time status monitoring of the video links of each aircraft.The flight test results show that this technology fully meets the new requirements of the new model test flight for real-time monitoring of video, and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of real-time monitoring of telemetry digital video of the flight test.
    • Remote Monitoring of Forces on Head for Detection of Traumatic Brain Injuries on Amusement Park Rides

      Camp, Laura; Marcellin, Stephanie; Rickel, Jodi; Rubenow, Tierny; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The ASTM F24 Committee pays substantial attention to the potential safety risks that roller coasters pose to riders. Although the G-forces exerted on rides are strictly controlled to prevent traumatic brain injury and other conditions, operators may wish to monitor the impact forces guests experience to determine if they need to be removed from the ride. We have designed a system to monitor data and relay the findings to the operators. To measure the effect roller coasters have on the brains of guests, we used a combination of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and impact force sensors are incorporated into a headpiece worn by the guest. During the ride, the sensor data is wirelessly transmitted to a base station where it can be monitored in real time by an operator. The system compares the gathered data with limits based on pre-existing research on traumatic brain injuries, and then alerts the operator to potential issues.
    • Research on Application Technology of Intelligent Wireless Sensor Network in Flight Test

      Chen, Peng; Jiang, Hongwei; Yan, Yihong; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Aimed at the problems of many test parameters, complicated lead wires, large additional weight, lack of flexibility and expandability as well as low level of intelligence and networkability of existing aircraft test flight test systems, with the application requirements of intelligent wireless sensor network for flight test technologies as the lead, this paper makes research on key technologies of intelligent wireless sensor network in aircraft flight test, and focuses on the synchronous acquisition system architecture, real-time protection method, and data transmission reliability checking method and the development of acquisition and recording system for wireless sensor networks based on the iNET standard for aircraft flight test. Besides, this paper also performs simulation and engine ground test verification which laid the foundation for the application of intelligent wireless sensor network technology in aircraft flight test.
    • Research on Embedded Real-time Processing Technology of ARINC429 Bus Dynamic Logic Block

      Qi, Shengyuan; Wang, Zhongjie; Shi, Fenglei; Qi, Xiaopeng; China Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      ARINC429 bus is widely used. In a new type of logic block communication method, the logic layer of the application layer is composed of a plurality of ARINC429 messages, and the message length and content dynamically change. The telemetry monitoring needs real-time analysis of the application layer communication protocol to correctly interpret the user-defined message content. This paper proposes an embedded real-time processing scheme, which integrates real-time processing hardware and software in data acquisition unit. It can dynamic analysis the application layer protocol of the logic block, extract user-defined information according to the telemetry for downloading, the problems encountered in telemetry monitoring of the type of communication are solved. At the same time, this solution is also applicable to real-time analysis of other avionics bus in the application layer protocols.
    • RF Planning for 3D coverage in Cellular LTE Range Telemetry

      Harasty, Dan; Kogiantis, Achilles; Maung, Nan; Rege, Kiran; Triolo, Anthony; Perspecta Labs (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Initial analysis and lab experiments have provided positive confirmation of the viability of 4G LTE Cellular Technology for Aeronautical mobile telemetry. COTS LTE equipment is deployed for the test range frequency bands. The high speeds of test articles (TAs) can be addressed with a UE add-on applique’ customized to compensate for the Doppler shifts. The applique has worked effectively with the LTE physical layer. To achieve spectrum efficiency, a multi-cell network is planned. Mobility is managed with native LTE handovers. To address extreme Doppler cases, additional support is provided to mobility management via a central entity that estimates the TA’s trajectory and issues handover commands. Within this framework, we present aspects of an RF planning study that characterizes the dependence of coverage on such design parameters as base station density, antenna orientation, and altitude of the user device. We also quantify the Doppler shifts that can result under the standard strategy of connecting the user device to the strongest cell, and show how, with an alternative, threshold-based strategy, one can achieve a substantial reduction in Doppler shifts at the expense of a loss in user rates.

      Odejobi, Moses; Zegeye, Wondimu; King, Ronald; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Oladiputo, Adebisi; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper develops and utilizes a method for analyzing, modeling and simulating cyber risks in a networked environment as part of a risk management model by incorporating an approach that will be used for the development of attacks, detection, controls from real data or assumptions. The risk assessment considers Morgan State University’s network as a case study, which can be migrated to a networked telemetry system. Recent attacks on more than 300 U.S. universities targeting university professors, students, and faculty to collect credentials of the victims’ university library accounts have been identified by the PhishLabs. This research work develops a model for cyber-attack risk assessment and countermeasures for the security of distributed and decentralized Servers resource in academic and other environments.

      Keshmiri, Shawn; Hauptman, Dustin; Shukla, Daksh; Blevins, Aaron; University of Kansas, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department; University of Kansas, Department of Aerospace Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Swarms of autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are becoming increasingly popular as efficient replacement for manned aircraft. The major component that makes the swarm of UASs possible is an efficient exchange of aircrafts states (e.g. position & velocity) for all agents and the ground station. Advanced communication technologies are required to be implemented on each agent to enable real-time communication at high frequencies (e.g. 20 Hz) to avoid inter collisions and holding formations. To assess mesh network limitations and to identify bottlenecks, a series of simulations are carried out using actual hardware that is used for swarms of UASs, which are: (1) Amount of bandwidth that can be guaranteed given the communication system being used (XBee-900HP), each plane that the KU team uses, transmits 127 variables, 4 bytes each, at 20 Hz which means each plane needs 10 KBps and the mesh network might be able to support 53 UASs theoretically (2) Range limitations (3) Latency issues.
    • A Scalable Medical Devices Localization Service Modeling

      Zegeye, Wondimu; Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Medical applications of telemetry continue to evolve with the demand for real time networked medical data, and with minimum intrusion to the mobility of the patient. This paper presents several architectures for managing a scalable hospital’s medical devices localization service and shows how these can be represented using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) model. It targets medical devices which are equipped with wireless technologies such as WiFi, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), etc. which can be incorporated into a networked telemetry system. The UML modeling demonstrates a scalable medical devices localization service for a hospital which can make use of client-server and cloud based architectures. The resulting model is a step towards a practical implementation of the service in tackling several problems which can arise due to the misplacement and improper sharing of medical devices in a healthcare scenario such as hospitals.

      Fecko, Mariusz; Kim, Heechang; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wong, Larry; Radke, Mark; Young, Tom; Grace, Thomas; Perspecta Labs; Bevilacqua Res. Corp.; USAF AFMC; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      IP-based telemetry systems such as iNET require extensive lab testing prior to fielding. Current iNET testbeds typically use several real radios and a mix of pre-recorded and live telemetry traffic. However, stress testing the iNET Radio Access Network (RAN) is hard to perform experimentally because of the limited number of available telemetry radios. To scale up the testing to a larger number of radios, we developed portable, low-cost VM-based telemetry radio simulators that interact with the iNET Link Manager (LM) and real radios to provide additional (emulated) links and queue depth reports. This approach makes it possible to establish the upper limit on the numbers of Test Articles that the LM can handle under various conditions. It also allows for fast reconfiguration of the number and set-up of simulated radios to test out specific use cases. The simulated radios free up real radios for off-site tests while preserving the ability for the continuous testing of LM features until real radios can be reclaimed. The developed testbed is portable owing to its lightweight set-up on the low-cost mac-mini computers. This makes it easy to use simulated radios also in off-site testbeds and field experiments.

      Graham, Richard A. Jr.; US Navy, NSWC, Corona, Telemetry Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is a legacy modulation technique still in use in older telemetry systems. Normally a telemetry system relies on hardware solutions to demodulate and decommutate PAM. This paper examines now a software solution can process from baseband.

      Graham, Richard A. Jr. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Several telemeters output RNRZ-L. This paper examines how to use software to decode the RNRZ-L to NRZ-L.

      Peken, Ture; Tandon, Ravi; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology has recently gained a lot of at- tention as a candidate technology for the next generation wireless systems. With a higher number of antennas, pilot-based channel estimation faces a limitation in the number of or- thogonal pilots to be used among users in all cells. Sparse channel estimation by using regularization methods can reduce the pilots compared to pilot-based channel estimation. In this paper, we study two regularization methods: least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and elastic net. We investigate the performance of least squares (LS), lasso, and elastic net when the sparsity of the channel changes over time. We study the optimum tuning parameters for lasso and elastic net based channel estimators to achieve the best performance with the di erent number of pilots and values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, we present the asymptotic analysis of LS, lasso, and elastic net based channel esti- mators.
    • Spectrum Access R&D (SARD) Program: Broadband Conformal C-Band Antenna Project

      Apalboym, Maxim; Bhakta, Kamal; Chavez, Michael; Kujiraoka, Scott; NAWC-WD Point Mugu (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Currently in the second year of development, Broadband Conformal C-Band Antenna (BCCA) is being transitioned and matured out of prototyping phase. This paper will discuss encountered challenges in designing, optimizing, and developing a weapon system telemetry antenna operating in C-Band spectrum.

      Madon, Phiroz H.; Young, Tom; O’Brien, Thomas; Radke, Mark; Vencore Labs Development Team; Test Resource Management Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD test ranges are experiencing ever-expanding needs for air-to-ground telemetry bandwidth, and hence are under pressure to manage the telemetry spectrum resource with high efficiency. The Spectrum Management System (SMS) provides test range operations staff with advanced tools for frequency de-confliction and air-to-ground RF link quality prediction for upcoming test flights. Additional features of the system include: automated, algorithmbased frequency de-confliction and assignment; record-keeping and automated archiving of frequency assignments, to be used for spectrum defense; 3-D GIS terrain-based coverage maps, displaying predicted air-to-ground link quality in each part of upcoming flights; determination of opportunities for frequencies reuse. Innovations include: addressing the combinatorial NP-hard problem of frequency assignment by applying multiple real-world constraints in a specified order; using a spectrum white space closest-fit algorithm to minimize spectrum fragmentation; creating space-time-frequency quanta in the database to store RF emissions for rapidly-moving aircraft.

      Oyediran, David; Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Spectrum sharing between federal and commercial users is proposed by the FCC and NTIA to open up the 3.5 GHz band for wireless broadband use. This requires the detection and subsequent allocation of available licensed spectrum for temporary use by other users without interfering with incumbent signal transmission. The DoD has a documented requirement of 865 MHz by 2025 to support telemetry but only 445 MHz is presently available. This paper presents spectrum sharing opportunity and technology that will help reduce service interference between spectrum users. We developed protocol model for spectrum sharing and implemented cognitive radio media access sensing mechanism using cyclostationary feature detector (CFD). The paper demonstrates shared usage by secondary users with minimum interference and improvement in throughput by as 5 times compared to other protocols. This is an introductory work that shows the feasibility of the approach with the potential for many other factors to be considered. We suggest that with proper sensing mechanism and quiet period implementation by the unlicensed users, CSMA/CA RTS-CTS could be adopted for licensed user protection.
    • Spectrum Supply and Demand Prediction Models

      Jones, Charles H.; Painter, Michael K.; C. H. Jones Consulting, LLC; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      There is a general belief that there is not enough spectrum available to meet T&E needs. How do we know this is true? The very few studies that have analyzed this have done so with limited data and limited modeling. Spectrum is a natural resource. An analogy to gold mining can be useful. A certain amount of gold exists in the ground, but it takes equipment to extract it. It is only the extracted quantity that is available as supply. Transmitters and receivers are the mining equipment that extract spectrum. Demand is different from requirements. A quagmire of debate surrounds requirements. Whereas, what testers want is their choice. There is evidence that not all demand is input into spectrum scheduling systems due to a combined perception by some testers of low priority and a lack of spectrum. Thus, use and request data do not even capture demand. This paper provides models and techniques that can aid analyses trying to predict the gap between spectrum supply and demand.

      Madon, Phiroz; Fecko, Mariusz; Ziegler, Robert; Samtani, Sunil; Harasty, Daniel; Shen, John; Painter, Mike; Jones, Charles; Young, Tom; O’Brien, Thomas; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD flight test ranges need to track telemetry spectrum usage to defend against future sell-offs, as well as operate with high spectral efficiency. The Spectrum Usage Measurement System (SUMS) characterizes spectrum usage and requirements at test ranges, and assesses operational impacts and costs on Test and Evaluation. The system relies on mission planning and scheduling data acquired from test range planning systems, as well as measurements obtained from telemetry receivers and frequency scanning sensors. SUMS key capabilities include: (1) collecting over-the-air evidence of actual assigned frequency usage; (2) combining this data with mission plans to produce an accurate representation of telemetry spectrum usage through the space, time, and frequency dimensions; (3) providing users with a data warehouse of spectrum usage, potentially spanning multiple years, with test ranges across CONUS, and (4) providing data analytics and visualization techniques that combine 3-D terrain-based heat maps with usage metrics charts.

      Rodby, Michael; Wigent, Mark; Laulima Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD T&E and Training ranges are under pressure from two sides: externally to share or vacate RF spectrum to make it available for commercial purposes, and internally to increase that usage to support more missions per day, and more data per mission. To appropriately respond to these pressures, the DoD CIO developed the DoD Electromagnetic Spectrum Roadmap and Action Plan. A key recommendation from that plan is to develop a spectrum usage monitoring program at T&E and training ranges. SUMS is being developed in response to that recommendation. The primary objective of SUMS is to give individual T&E and training ranges, as well as the DoD CIO and other senior DoD leadership, a comprehensive picture of spectrum usage at those ranges. This will enable them to make intelligent decisions about spectrum use, and also give them the tools needed to defend current and future spectrum allocations, or to plan cooperative spectrum sharing with non-Federal users. This paper will describe the need for a capability like SUMS, some of the challenges of developing SUMS, its overall architecture, and some of the benefits we expect the DoD to realize when SUMS is fully implemented and deployed.