Graham, Richard A. Jr.; US Navy, NSWC, Corona, Telemetry Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is a legacy modulation technique still in use in older telemetry systems. Normally a telemetry system relies on hardware solutions to demodulate and decommutate PAM. This paper examines now a software solution can process from baseband.

      Graham, Richard A. Jr. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Several telemeters output RNRZ-L. This paper examines how to use software to decode the RNRZ-L to NRZ-L.

      Peken, Ture; Tandon, Ravi; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology has recently gained a lot of at- tention as a candidate technology for the next generation wireless systems. With a higher number of antennas, pilot-based channel estimation faces a limitation in the number of or- thogonal pilots to be used among users in all cells. Sparse channel estimation by using regularization methods can reduce the pilots compared to pilot-based channel estimation. In this paper, we study two regularization methods: least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and elastic net. We investigate the performance of least squares (LS), lasso, and elastic net when the sparsity of the channel changes over time. We study the optimum tuning parameters for lasso and elastic net based channel estimators to achieve the best performance with the di erent number of pilots and values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, we present the asymptotic analysis of LS, lasso, and elastic net based channel esti- mators.
    • Spectrum Access R&D (SARD) Program: Broadband Conformal C-Band Antenna Project

      Apalboym, Maxim; Bhakta, Kamal; Chavez, Michael; Kujiraoka, Scott; NAWC-WD Point Mugu (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Currently in the second year of development, Broadband Conformal C-Band Antenna (BCCA) is being transitioned and matured out of prototyping phase. This paper will discuss encountered challenges in designing, optimizing, and developing a weapon system telemetry antenna operating in C-Band spectrum.

      Madon, Phiroz H.; Young, Tom; O’Brien, Thomas; Radke, Mark; Vencore Labs Development Team; Test Resource Management Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD test ranges are experiencing ever-expanding needs for air-to-ground telemetry bandwidth, and hence are under pressure to manage the telemetry spectrum resource with high efficiency. The Spectrum Management System (SMS) provides test range operations staff with advanced tools for frequency de-confliction and air-to-ground RF link quality prediction for upcoming test flights. Additional features of the system include: automated, algorithmbased frequency de-confliction and assignment; record-keeping and automated archiving of frequency assignments, to be used for spectrum defense; 3-D GIS terrain-based coverage maps, displaying predicted air-to-ground link quality in each part of upcoming flights; determination of opportunities for frequencies reuse. Innovations include: addressing the combinatorial NP-hard problem of frequency assignment by applying multiple real-world constraints in a specified order; using a spectrum white space closest-fit algorithm to minimize spectrum fragmentation; creating space-time-frequency quanta in the database to store RF emissions for rapidly-moving aircraft.

      Oyediran, David; Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Morgan State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Spectrum sharing between federal and commercial users is proposed by the FCC and NTIA to open up the 3.5 GHz band for wireless broadband use. This requires the detection and subsequent allocation of available licensed spectrum for temporary use by other users without interfering with incumbent signal transmission. The DoD has a documented requirement of 865 MHz by 2025 to support telemetry but only 445 MHz is presently available. This paper presents spectrum sharing opportunity and technology that will help reduce service interference between spectrum users. We developed protocol model for spectrum sharing and implemented cognitive radio media access sensing mechanism using cyclostationary feature detector (CFD). The paper demonstrates shared usage by secondary users with minimum interference and improvement in throughput by as 5 times compared to other protocols. This is an introductory work that shows the feasibility of the approach with the potential for many other factors to be considered. We suggest that with proper sensing mechanism and quiet period implementation by the unlicensed users, CSMA/CA RTS-CTS could be adopted for licensed user protection.
    • Spectrum Supply and Demand Prediction Models

      Jones, Charles H.; Painter, Michael K.; C. H. Jones Consulting, LLC; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      There is a general belief that there is not enough spectrum available to meet T&E needs. How do we know this is true? The very few studies that have analyzed this have done so with limited data and limited modeling. Spectrum is a natural resource. An analogy to gold mining can be useful. A certain amount of gold exists in the ground, but it takes equipment to extract it. It is only the extracted quantity that is available as supply. Transmitters and receivers are the mining equipment that extract spectrum. Demand is different from requirements. A quagmire of debate surrounds requirements. Whereas, what testers want is their choice. There is evidence that not all demand is input into spectrum scheduling systems due to a combined perception by some testers of low priority and a lack of spectrum. Thus, use and request data do not even capture demand. This paper provides models and techniques that can aid analyses trying to predict the gap between spectrum supply and demand.

      Madon, Phiroz; Fecko, Mariusz; Ziegler, Robert; Samtani, Sunil; Harasty, Daniel; Shen, John; Painter, Mike; Jones, Charles; Young, Tom; O’Brien, Thomas; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD flight test ranges need to track telemetry spectrum usage to defend against future sell-offs, as well as operate with high spectral efficiency. The Spectrum Usage Measurement System (SUMS) characterizes spectrum usage and requirements at test ranges, and assesses operational impacts and costs on Test and Evaluation. The system relies on mission planning and scheduling data acquired from test range planning systems, as well as measurements obtained from telemetry receivers and frequency scanning sensors. SUMS key capabilities include: (1) collecting over-the-air evidence of actual assigned frequency usage; (2) combining this data with mission plans to produce an accurate representation of telemetry spectrum usage through the space, time, and frequency dimensions; (3) providing users with a data warehouse of spectrum usage, potentially spanning multiple years, with test ranges across CONUS, and (4) providing data analytics and visualization techniques that combine 3-D terrain-based heat maps with usage metrics charts.

      Rodby, Michael; Wigent, Mark; Laulima Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      DoD T&E and Training ranges are under pressure from two sides: externally to share or vacate RF spectrum to make it available for commercial purposes, and internally to increase that usage to support more missions per day, and more data per mission. To appropriately respond to these pressures, the DoD CIO developed the DoD Electromagnetic Spectrum Roadmap and Action Plan. A key recommendation from that plan is to develop a spectrum usage monitoring program at T&E and training ranges. SUMS is being developed in response to that recommendation. The primary objective of SUMS is to give individual T&E and training ranges, as well as the DoD CIO and other senior DoD leadership, a comprehensive picture of spectrum usage at those ranges. This will enable them to make intelligent decisions about spectrum use, and also give them the tools needed to defend current and future spectrum allocations, or to plan cooperative spectrum sharing with non-Federal users. This paper will describe the need for a capability like SUMS, some of the challenges of developing SUMS, its overall architecture, and some of the benefits we expect the DoD to realize when SUMS is fully implemented and deployed.

      Hudgins, Gene; Secondline, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Often, TM requires operators on location with receive system(s) or at a remote console (with a remote antenna control unit), resulting in TDY for operators and possibly a shortage of operators to support all scheduled operations. A remote-control capability could eliminate existing personnel requirements at both the local system antenna site as well as the control facility, greatly reducing operational costs. TENA provides for real-time system interoperability, as well as interfacing existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations; fostering reuse of range assets and future software systems. JMETC is a distributed, LVC capability using a hybrid network solution for all classifications and cyber. TENA and JMETC allow for the most efficient use of current and future TM range resources via range resource integration, critical to validate system performance in a highly cost-effective manner.

      Reinwald, Carl; Laulima Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      The telemetry network revolution takes aeronautical flight testing from a broadcast-only paradigm to a TM-data-on-demand paradigm. This paper explores this paradigm shift, focusing on fundamental architectural changes enabled by incorporating telemetry networking technologies into a flight test system. Two concepts are presented to help understand the TM-data-on-demand paradigm: retrieving and processing recorded data from a test article during a mission and onboard dynamic data analysis and compression. An example flight test system with both SST and TmNS components provides a foundation to further explore the paradigm-shifting capabilities a telemetry network brings to flight test. In addition to TM-data-on-demand, the current static spectrum allocation methodology must also be replaced with a more agile, bandwidth-on-demand paradigm. When both TM-data-on-demand and bandwidth-on-demand capabilities have been realized, a new era of efficient flight testing will emerge.
    • Telemetry Range Support Aircraft (TRSA) Program: Providing the Navy with Next Generation TM and Range Support

      Roudebush, J. Kyle; Hernandez, Jose; Kujiraoka, Scott; Sanchez, Kenneth; Smith, Tauri; Pace, Michael; NAVAIR-Point Mugu; Raytheon Albuquerque (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In November 2017, a contract was awarded to Raytheon Missile Systems to develop a new advanced telemetry system for the U.S. Navy’s Range Support Aircraft. Based within the Gulfstream 550 airborne early warning airframe, Raytheon’s modern solution will offer multirole capabilities in telemetry data collection and re-transmit, range surveillance and clearance, flight termination, and communications relay. This paper will detail the current status of the integration of these systems into the airplane, along with the one major developmental system called CBITS (Commercial Based Instrumentation Telemetry System).
    • Telemetry System Based on MESH Network and Its Application

      Guo, Pingfan; Liu, Ming; Li, Hong; Zhu, Hongxiang; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      In the flight test, the advantages of network telemetry have gradually emerged, and their application fields will also be expanded. This paper introduces a network telemetry system based on MESH net and its application in flight test, a ground station can receive telemetry signals of several planes at the same time; the components and functions of the system are described, the advantages of this network telemetry system, existing problems and suggestions on future improvements are presented.

      Painter, Michael K.; Madanagopal, Karthic; Swaminathan, Kannan; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; C. H. Jones Consulting, LLC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      There continues to be growing pressure to sell off spectrum currently allocated for defense purposes in favor of private sector applications, prompting concerns that we will soon reach a point where Department of Defense (DoD) needs can no longer be met. In response, the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Frequency Management Group (FMG) developed a baseline set of standard metrics to measure spectrum utilization, demand, efficiency, and operational effectiveness. Using this standard (RCC 707-14) as a foundation, a Spectrum Management Metrics Toolkit (SMMT) has been developed to calculate, plot, and display these metrics. The challenge now is leveraging these metrics to inform and construct the arguments needed to maintain access to needed spectrum. The purpose of this paper is to describe progress toward the development of a methodology and a set of analytics based on the RCC standard to build such a compelling narrative. The methodology is based on a data analytics and communication concept, called “Story Points,” which seeks to guide users in the discovery, composition, and delivery of targeted narratives and supporting graphics derived through mining available data sources.
    • Test Range Spectrum Management with LTE-A

      Picha, Bob; Nokia Corporation of America (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
    • A Testing Method of Measuring Time Delay of the Flight Test AFDX Avionic System Caused by Data Acquiring Network

      Wang, Jianjun; Peng, Guojin; Yan, Yihong; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Full Duplex Switched Ethernet AFDX is gradually replacing the traditional 1553B as the architecture of the new generation avionics system. AFDX bus has the characteristic of Ethernet delay. However, special needs for measuring avionics AFDX network delay are required to meet in flight test. According to the characteristics of flight test, this paper proposes a method of data acquisition network delay measurement for AFDX avionics system to solve the puzzle of delay measurement. The experiments on a test aircraft demonstrate that the method can improve the calculation accuracy of an avionics system and it’s effective in engineering applications.

      Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; University of Kansas, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department; BYU, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      This paper begins by summarizing a recent advancement in the way that shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) waveforms can be viewed. This new viewpoint succeeds in eliminating the need for SOQPSK to be thought of as a “special” kind of correlated, ternary continuous phase modulation (CPM). Instead, SOQPSK can be viewed as an ordinary, binary CPM. We provide all of the details necessary to achieve a complete unification of SOQPSK models at the waveform level, at the bit sequence level, and in terms of waveform initialization. With this information, SOQPSK users can easily mix and match SOQPSK models at the transmitter and receiver in order to make use of the advantages of each model.

      Knudtson, Kevin; Moreno, Antonio; NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center; NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Arcata Associates Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      A simple pulse overlay circuit using a logic OR gate was developed to overlay a precise leading edge 1 pulse per second time reference marker from a global positioning system receiver onto a non-return -to- zero-level pulse code modulation telemetry data stream to validate time stamp accuracy and measure propagation delay in telemetry equipment.

      Moore, Russ; Aerospace Instrumentation Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2018-11)
      Flight test engineers sometimes need to conduct photogrammetric analysis to investigate transient phenomena and validate computer and wind tunnel models. Data is captured to characterize the performance of the aircraft and its avionics and other equipment and for store separation tests. Store separation encompasses such functionality as fuel tank release, landing gear operation and missile deployment. To capture accurate visual data during flight tests requires the use of a high-speed camera device capable of capturing moving images with exposure times for each image of less than 1/1,000 second or frame rates in excess of 200 frames per second. The cameras used in store separation FTI applications must be very environmentally rugged and perform optimally and accurately in harsh environments. Any potential failure must be mitigated because of the high cost of keeping a test platform in the air. Post-test, it is important that the images can be correlated so the data is suitable for photogrammetric analysis. This paper discusses what is required for successfully capturing data in flight tests for photogrammetric analysis and outlines a high speed camera system solution.