Atypical Flowers Can Be as Profitable as Typical Hummingbird Flowers
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm
hummingbird energy budgets
hummingbird time budgets
western North America
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherUNIV CHICAGO PRESS
CitationNickolas M. Waser, Paul J. CaraDonna, and Mary V. Price, "Atypical Flowers Can Be as Profitable as Typical Hummingbird Flowers," The American Naturalist 192, no. 5 (November 2018): 644-653. https://doi.org/10.1086/699836
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AbstractIn western North America, hummingbirds can be observed systematically visiting flowers that lack the typical reddish color, tubular morphology, and dilute nectar of hummingbird flowers. Curious about this behavior, we asked whether these atypical flowers are energetically profitable for hummingbirds. Our field measurements of nectar content and hummingbird foraging speeds, taken over four decades at multiple localities, show that atypical flowers can be as profitable as typical ones and suggest that the profit can support 24-h metabolic requirements of the birds. Thus, atypical flowers may contribute to successful migration of hummingbirds, enhance their population densities, and allow them to occupy areas seemingly depauperate in suitable resources. These results illustrate what can be gained by attending to the unexpected.
Note12 month embargo; published online: 12 September 2018
VersionFinal published version