Secure and Reliable Communications over Free-space Optical Channels
AdvisorDjordjevic, Ivan B.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractFree-space optical (FSO) communication provides a promising alternative solution to the traditional radio frequency (RF) communications. Compared to the RF technology, there are many advantages of FSO communications, such as ultra-high bandwidth, license-free spectrum, low inter-channel interference, and energy-efficient transmission. The potential applications for FSO communication include the last-one-mile access link from the fiber-based backbone network, low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications, high-altitude base station platforms or vehicles, deep-space communications, and in-building automation connections. As the FSO technology becomes mature and increasingly involved, the security and reliability requirements of such applications also become crucial. Regarding the security issues, although the FSO communication is inherently more secure than the RF counterpart due to high directivity of its line-of-sight (LOS) link, it can still suffer from optical wire-tapping attack. There are many different application schemes that an eavesdropper can still probe the FSO link. Traditionally, to protect the communication, many works have been done on encryption layer and upper network layer, such as computationally intensive cryptographic algorithms and message exchanging protocols. In recent years, physical-layer security (PLS) has been getting more attentions as it provides an extra layer of security against eavesdropping. The PLS schemes, in general can be categorized into two main categories: classical PLS and quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. The classical PLS is based on the information theoretic security analysis, while the QKD security is guaranteed by the quantum mechanics laws. Both techniques have been studied for FSO channels. In the first half of this dissertation, we study the PLS in a LOS FSO channel using orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing and show that higher secrecy capacity can be achieved using OAM multiplexing technology in the presence of atmospheric turbulence effects. Then, we proposed an adaptation scheme for QKD system over FSO channel with different QKD protocols, i.e. BB84 and decoy state protocols. By adapting the source brightness based on the channel condition, we optimized the secret key rate (SKR) of the QKD system. Furthermore, we proposed a multiple spatial modes-based QKD system with backpropagation method to increase the total SKR through parallel channels. Regarding the reliability of an optical communication system as well as information reconciliation for both PLS and QKD schemes, the forward error correction (FEC) becomes an essential technique to enable high-speed transmission. The FEC with low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes has been studied for decades from LDPC block codes to the most recent spatially-coupled (SC) LDPC codes. For FSO communications, due to the time-varying nature of FSO channels, the capability of rate adaptation is important to achieve a consistent reliable transmission. In the second half of this dissertation, we proposed unified FPGA-based architecture to implement both quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes and SC-LDPC codes with rate adaptation capability. The performance is verified through FPGA emulation to show good error floor properties. To further validate the rate adaptation capability, we have built a spatial light modulator (SLM)-based FSO channel emulator to test the adaptive coding scheme. Furthermore, we have conducted a fiber-based experiment with our rate adaptative coding scheme to show that the proposed adaptive coding scheme can be also used in dynamic fiber-based networks.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Electrical & Computer Engineering