Rescue of collapsed replication forks is dependent on NSMCE2 to prevent mitotic DNA damage
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Dept Cellular & Mol Med
Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherPUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
CitationPond KW, de Renty C, Yagle MK, Ellis NA (2019) Rescue of collapsed replication forks is dependent on NSMCE2 to prevent mitotic DNA damage. PLoS Genet 15(2): e1007942. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007942
Rights© 2019 Pond et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
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AbstractNSMCE2 is an E3 SUMO ligase and a subunit of the SMC5/6 complex that associates with the replication fork and protects against genomic instability. Here, we study the fate of collapsed replication forks generated by prolonged hydroxyurea treatment in human NSMCE2-deficient cells. Double strand breaks accumulate during rescue by converging forks in normal cells but not in NSMCE2-deficient cells. Un-rescued forks persist into mitosis, leading to increased mitotic DNA damage. Excess RAD51 accumulates and persists at collapsed forks in NSMCE2-deficient cells, possibly due to lack of BLM recruitment to stalled forks. Despite failure of BLM to accumulate at stalled forks, NSMCE2-deficient cells exhibit lower levels of hydroxyurea-induced sister chromatid exchange. In cells deficient in both NSMCE2 and BLM, hydroxyurea-induced double strand breaks and sister chromatid exchange resembled levels found in NSCME2-deficient cells. We conclude that the rescue of collapsed forks by converging forks is dependent on NSMCE2. Author summary DNA damage encountered by the replication fork causes fork stalling and is a major source of mutations when not adequately repaired. Fork stalling can lead to fork collapse, that is, a state of the fork in which normal DNA synthesis cannot be resumed at the site of stalling. Collapsed forks must be rescued by replication forks initiated nearby, but little is known about the rescue mechanism by which an active fork merges with a collapsed fork. We used an inhibitor of DNA replication to generate collapsed replication forks and then studied genetic control of collapsed-fork rescue. We found that NSMCE2, which is a gene product that is known to regulate repair responses to replication stress, is required for cells to effectively rescue collapsed replication forks in order to complete DNA synthesis. DNA double strand breaks that are associated with normal collapsed-fork rescue do not accumulate in cells that are deficient for NSMCE2, suggesting that DNA breakage is part of the rescue and repair mechanism. Failure to rescue collapsed forks leads to DNA damage in mitosis and DNA damage in the following cell cycle. Our work highlights a unique role for NSMCE2 in rescue of collapsed replication forks.
NoteOpen access journal
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsUniversity of Arizona Cancer Center; National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health [R01CA140804, P30 CA023074]; University of Arizona