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dc.contributor.authorSagan, Vasit
dc.contributor.authorMaimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi
dc.contributor.authorSidike, Paheding
dc.contributor.authorEblimit, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorPeterson, Kyle
dc.contributor.authorHartling, Sean
dc.contributor.authorEsposito, Flavio
dc.contributor.authorKhanal, Kapil
dc.contributor.authorNewcomb, Maria
dc.contributor.authorPauli, Duke
dc.contributor.authorWard, Rick
dc.contributor.authorFritschi, Felix
dc.contributor.authorShakoor, Nadia
dc.contributor.authorMockler, Todd
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-20T21:20:49Z
dc.date.available2019-06-20T21:20:49Z
dc.date.issued2019-02-01
dc.identifier.citationSagan V, Maimaitijiang M, Sidike P, Eblimit K, Peterson KT, Hartling S, Esposito F, Khanal K, Newcomb M, Pauli D, Ward R, Fritschi F, Shakoor N, Mockler T. UAV-Based High Resolution Thermal Imaging for Vegetation Monitoring, and Plant Phenotyping Using ICI 8640 P, FLIR Vue Pro R 640, and thermoMap Cameras. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(3):330.en_US
dc.identifier.issn2072-4292
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/rs11030330
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/632968
dc.description.abstractThe growing popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in recent years, along with decreased cost and greater accessibility of both UAVs and thermal imaging sensors, has led to the widespread use of this technology, especially for precision agriculture and plant phenotyping. There are several thermal camera systems in the market that are available at a low cost. However, their efficacy and accuracy in various applications has not been tested. In this study, three commercially available UAV thermal cameras, including ICI 8640 P-series (Infrared Cameras Inc., USA), FLIR Vue Pro R 640 (FLIR Systems, USA), and thermoMap (senseFly, Switzerland) have been tested and evaluated for their potential for forest monitoring, vegetation stress detection, and plant phenotyping. Mounted on multi-rotor or fixed wing systems, these cameras were simultaneously flown over different experimental sites located in St. Louis, Missouri (forest environment), Columbia, Missouri (plant stress detection and phenotyping), and Maricopa, Arizona (high throughput phenotyping). Thermal imagery was calibrated using procedures that utilize a blackbody, handheld thermal spot imager, ground thermal targets, emissivity and atmospheric correction. A suite of statistical analyses, including analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation analysis between camera temperature and plant biophysical and biochemical traits, and heritability were utilized in order to examine the sensitivity and utility of the cameras against selected plant phenotypic traits and in the detection of plant water stress. In addition, in reference to quantitative assessment of image quality from different thermal cameras, a non-reference image quality evaluator, which primarily measures image focus that is based on the spatial relationship of pixels in different scales, was developed. Our results show that (1) UAV-based thermal imaging is a viable tool in precision agriculture and (2) the three examined cameras are comparable in terms of their efficacy for plant phenotyping. Overall, accuracy, when compared against field measured ground temperature and estimating power of plant biophysical and biochemical traits, the ICI 8640 P-series performed better than the other two cameras, followed by FLIR Vue Pro R 640 and thermoMap cameras. Our results demonstrated that all three UAV thermal cameras provide useful temperature data for precision agriculture and plant phenotying, with ICI 8640 P-series presenting the best results among the three systems. Cost wise, FLIR Vue Pro R 640 is more affordable than the other two cameras, providing a less expensive option for a wide range of applications.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation [IIA-1355406, IIA-1430427]; Department of Energy (ARPA-E) [DE-AR0000594]; National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NNX15AK03H]en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/11/3/330en_US
dc.rights© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.en_US
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectthermal imagingen_US
dc.subjectICI 8640 P-seriesen_US
dc.subjectFLIR Vue Pro R 640en_US
dc.subjectthermoMapen_US
dc.subjectUnmanned Aerial Vehiclesen_US
dc.subjectvegetation monitoringen_US
dc.subjectplant phenotypingen_US
dc.subjectheritability analysisen_US
dc.titleUAV-Based High Resolution Thermal Imaging for Vegetation Monitoring, and Plant Phenotyping Using ICI 8640 P, FLIR Vue Pro R 640, and thermoMap Camerasen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Sch Plant Scien_US
dc.identifier.journalREMOTE SENSINGen_US
dc.description.noteOpen access journalen_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.journaltitleRemote Sensing
dc.source.volume11
dc.source.issue3
dc.source.beginpage330
refterms.dateFOA2019-06-20T21:20:50Z


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© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.