First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation
Jannuzi, Buell T.
Marrone, Daniel P.
Folkers, Thomas W.
Forbes, David C.
Greer, Christopher H.
Massingill, Kyle D.
McColl, Martin P.
Nguyen, Chi H.
AffiliationUniv Arizona, Steward Observ
Univ Arizona, Dept Astron
Keywordsblack hole physics
galaxies: individual (M87)
gravitational lensing: strong
techniques: high angular resolution
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
CitationThe Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration et al 2019 ApJL 875 L2
JournalASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS
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AbstractThe Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of similar to 1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (lambda/D) is similar to 25 mu as, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64. gigabit s(-1), exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.
VersionFinal published version
SponsorsAcademy of Finland [274477, 284495, 312496]; European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University through John Templeton Foundation ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) [PIA ACT172033, Fondecyt 1171506, BASAL AFB-170002, ALMA-conicyt 31140007]; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) [104497, 275201, 279006, 281692]; Direccion General de Asuntos de l Personal Academico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) [IN112417]; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana postdoctoral grant [APOSTD/2018/177]; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation [GBMF 947, GBMF-3561, GBMF-5278]; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho: MEXT) Scholarship; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) [JP17J08829]; JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) [QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057, QYZDJ-SSW-SYS008]; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI [18KK0090, JP18K13594, JP18K03656, JP18H03721, 18K03709, 18H01245, 25120007]; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan [105-2112-M-001-025-MY3, 106-2112-M-001-011, 106-2119-M-001-027, 107-2119-M-001-017, 107-2119-M-001-020, 107-2119-M-110-005]; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Fermi Guest Investigator grant) [80NSSC17K0649]; National Key Research and Development Program of China [2016YFA0400704, 2016YFA0400702]; National Science Foundation (NSF) [AST-0096454, AST-0352953, AST-0521233, AST-0705062, AST-0905844, AST-0922984, AST-1126433, AST-1140030, DGE-1144085, AST-1207704, AST-1207730, AST-1207752, MRI-1228509, OPP-1248097, AST-1310896]; Natural Science Foundation of China [11573051, 11633006, 11650110427, 10625314, 11721303, 11725312, 11873028, 11873073, U1531245, 11473010]; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC); National Research Foundation of Korea [2015-R1D1A1A01056807, NRF-2015H1A2A1033752, NRF-2015H1D3A1066561]; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award [639.043.513]; Spinoza Prize [SPI 78-409]; Swedish Research Council [2017-00648]; Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development, Job Creation and Trade; Russian Science Foundation [17-12-01029]; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad [AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P, AYA2016-80889-P]; US Department of Energy (USDOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory [89233218CNA000001]; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione Universita e Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA [CUP C52I13000140001]; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [730562 RadioNet]; ALMA North America Development Fund Chandra [TM6-17006X]; NSF [ACI-1548562, DBI-0735191, DBI-1265383, DBI-1743442]; MOST (Taiwan) [99-2119-M-001-002-MY4, 103-2119-M-001-010-MY2, 106-2119-M-001-013, 106-2923-M-001-005, 107-2923-M-001-002]; Smithsonian Institution; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France); MPG(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany); Academia Sinica; National Key R&D Program of China [2017YFA0402700]; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK); State of Arizona; NSF; NSF Physics Frontier Center award [PHY-0114422]; Kavli Foundation; GBMF [GBMF-947]; National Science Foundation [PLR-1248097]; NSF Physics Frontier Center grant [PHY-1125897]; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO); South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO), which is a facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF), an agency of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of South Africa; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award [SEV-2017-0709]; Academia Sinica (Taiwan); IGN (Instituto Geografico, Nacional, Spain); Compute Ontario; Calcul Quebec; Compute Canada; CyVerse; [AST-1312651]; [AST-1337663]; [AST-1440254]; [AST-1555365]; [AST-1715061]; [AST-1615796]; [AST-1614868]; [AST-1716327]; [OISE-1743747]; [AST-1816420]