Toxic Masculinity on Television: A Content Analysis of Preferred Adolescent Programs
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe present study examined the prevalence of toxic masculinity on adolescent television programs using social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001) and social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation (Bussey & Bandura, 1999) as a theoretical lens. Drawing from a sample of current television shows that adolescents watch, the content analysis observes two indicators of toxic masculinity: aggression (physical aggression and expressions of anger) and an avoidance of femininity (a mockery of femininity, a suppression of vulnerable emotions and an intolerance of homosexuality). The results indicated that toxic masculinity occurs within 36.8% (n = 869) of scenes on adolescent television shows. Furthermore, gender differences occurred in the enactment of specific indicators of toxic masculinity. Physical aggression was exhibited more often by male characters than female characters, but female characters enacted a suppression of vulnerable emotions more often than male characters. Future research along with theoretical and practical implications in regard to toxic masculinity are discussed.
Degree ProgramGraduate College